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Carbohydrates. Honors Biology . Objectives. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

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Honors Biology


  • Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

  • Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.

  • Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

Recall macromolecules
Recall: Macromolecules

  • BIG biological molecules

    • Made of smaller parts

      • Monomers

  • Carbon-based (organic)

    • Carbohydrates

    • Nucleic acids

    • Proteins

    • Lipids


  • Monomer: monosaccharide

  • Used for:

    • Short term energy

    • Structural support

    • Cell tags (antennae)

  • Examples:

  • Fun fact: many carbohydrates have names that end in -ose


  • Simple (one sugar) carbohydrates

    • Example: glucose


  • Simple (two sugars bonded) carbohydrates

    • Example: lactose


  • Complex (many sugars bonded) carbohydrates

    • Example: starch, glycogen, chitin

How do we get carbohydrates
How do we get carbohydrates?

  • Photosynthesis

    • Creates glucose (C6H12O6) from CO2, H2O and sunlight

Reactants  Products

Why does life depend on photosynthesis
Why does life depend on photosynthesis?

  • Autotrophs are the basis of all Earth’s ecosystems

  • Provide food for all organisms (directly and indirectly)

  • Provide O2 and remove CO2 from atmosphere

How does photosynthesis happen
How does photosynthesis happen?

  • The Details:

  • Series of 2 reactions:

    • Light Dependent Reactions

      • Location: chloroplast

      • Purpose: harvest solar energy to prepare to make sugars

      • Events: chlorophyll absorbs light, H2O is split, O2 is released

    • Calvin Cycle

      • Location: chloroplast

      • Purpose: make sugars

      • Events: CO2 is incorporated into C6H12O6 with H from H2O

How do we get energy
How do we get energy?

  • From eating….unless you are a plant, right?

  • Not so fast…

  • Glucose (and other macromolecules) is not usable energy for cells

  • Glucose must be converted to usable energy (ATP)


  • Adenosine triphosphate

  • Molecule that is usable energy for cells

  • Energy is found in bonds between phosphate groups

Atp life s battery
ATP = Life’s Battery

  • ATP is a rechargeable molecule

  • Energy releasing reaction:

    • ATP loses a P

    • Adenosine diphosphate is left (ADP)

    • Energy is released for cellular use

  • Energy storing reaction:

    • P is reattached to ADP using energy from food

    • ATP is made again

    • Energy is stored for next time cell needs it

How do we make atp
How do we make ATP?

  • Cellular respiration

    • Converts energy from glucose into ATP

    • Now cells can do work!

Why does life depend on cellular respiration
Why does life depend on cellular respiration?

  • Cells can’t use glucose as it is, must have ATP to function

  • This includes plant cells!

  • All cells must go through cellular respiration

How does cellular respiration happen
How does cellular respiration happen?

  • The Details:

  • Series of 3 reactions:

    • Glycolysis

      • Location: cytoplasm

      • Purpose: begin breakdown of C6H12O6

      • Events: C6H12O6is split, 2 ATP made

        • (glyco = sugar; -lysis = break)

    • Krebs Cycle

      • Location: mitochondria

      • Purpose: continue breakdown of C6H12O6

      • Events: CO2 is released, 2 ATP made

    • Electron Transport Chain

      • Location: mitochondria

      • Purpose: complete breakdown of , C6H12O6make ATP

      • Events: O2 is used, H2O is formed, 32-34 ATP is made

Aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration

  • Cellular respiration with oxygen

  • Produces 36-38 ATP per glucose

Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

  • Cellular respiration without oxygen

  • Much less efficient at converting glucose to ATP

  • Occurs in 2 steps:

    1. Glycolysis

    2. Lactic Acid Fermentation (animals)


    Alcoholic Fermentation (plants)

Lactic acid fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation

  • Animals

    • Some bacteria, some fungus

  • Lactic acid is produced

    • Why muscles are sore after a hard workout

Alcohol fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation

  • Plants

    • Some bacteria, some fungus

  • Ethanol, CO2 produced

    • How yeast makes bread rise

    • How alcoholic beverages are produced