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Smoothing Factors for RE applications in DG. David Meyer EE5250 4/18/2006. RE for DG. Limitations to conventional units Sound Space Emissions Environmental Responsibility. Background. RE generation variability Defined Geography Weather Need for Smoothing Factors Example Systems.

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Smoothing Factors for RE applications in DG


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Presentation Transcript
re for dg
RE for DG
  • Limitations to conventional units
    • Sound
    • Space
    • Emissions
  • Environmental Responsibility
background
Background
  • RE generation variability
    • Defined
    • Geography
    • Weather
  • Need for Smoothing Factors
  • Example Systems
variability of re sources
Variability of RE Sources

Table 1. Variability of RE generation systems [5]

defined wind
Defined - Wind

Figure 1, 2, 3 Wind Data for Ojibway MI (Isle Royale)

defined solar
Defined – Solar

Figure 4. Hourly Average Solar Energy for Ojibway [1]

geographic factors
Geographic Factors
  • Placement of RE
  • Max output dependant weather factors
  • Dispersion
geographic wind
Geographic Wind

Figure 5. Wind Energy of the US [2]

geographic solar
Geographic Solar

Figure 6. Solar Energy of the US [2]

solar example
Solar Example
  • Latitude – hours of sun per day
  • Weather

Ojibway, Michigan El Paso, Texas Keys, Florida

Figure 7, 8, 9 Average Monthly Solar Radiation (kW –hr/ m^2)

weather factors
Weather Factors

Figure 10. Regional Wind Speed Map [3] Figure 11. Regional Infrared Map [3]

example
Example

Figure 12. Smoothing Effects of Geographical Dispersion [5]

denmark data
Denmark Data

Figure 13. Smoothing Effects of Geographical Dispersion (actual data) [5]

uk example
UK example

Figure 14. Hours of Low Wind Speed for UK [6]

load effect with solar
Load Effect with Solar

Figure 15. Solar Power vs. System Load [1]

combining re sources
Combining RE Sources

Figure 16. Wind and Sun data for Ojibway, MI [1]

energy storage
Energy Storage
  • Concept
  • Utilization
  • Specifications
comparisons
Comparisons

Figure 17. Comparisons of Electricity Storage Devices [5]

water pumping
Use

Location

Water Pumping

Figures 18 – 20 . Water-pumping reservoirs installed in the UK [7]

battery storage
Battery Storage

Figure 21. Vehicle to Grid Power Schematic [8]

hydrogen storage
Hydrogen Storage
  • Limitations
    • Cost
    • Space
  • Implementation
    • V to G
    • Home Units
re dg with conventional generation
RE DG with Conventional Generation
  • Nuclear
  • Coal
  • Nat. Gas
    • CHP
  • Hydro
example systems
Example Systems
  • Denmark
    • High wind penetration
    • Low geographic dispersion
    • System Interties
  • UK
    • Planning for high wind penetration
    • Good Geographic dispersion
    • Pumped storage capabilities
expanding re penetration the larger picture
Expanding RE penetration – The Larger Picture
  • Increasing the penetration of DG
  • Maximizing Site Placement
  • Geographic Dispersion
  • Major System Upgrades
    • Transfer of energy
    • Increased reliability
references
References

[1] Graphs Created with data gathered from weather sites

[2] National Renewable Energy Laboratory www.nrel.gov, Solar and Wind Maps

[3] The Weather Channel www.weather.com , Wind and Infrared Maps of US

[4] “The Most Frequently Asked Questions About Wind Energy”

American Wind Energy Association

[5] “Variability of Wind Power and Other Renewables – Management Options and Strategies” International Energy Agency

[6] “Wind Power and the UK Wind Resource” – Environmental Change Institute

[7] First Hydro www.fhc.co.uk , Image Gallery

[8] “Vehicle-to-Grid Power Fundamentals: Calculating Capacity and Net Revenue” Willett Kempton, Jana Tomic Journal of Power Sources 144 (2005) 268-279

questions

Questions?

Thank You