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Pope Leo X, the guy in charge. Electors ran much of Germany and elected Emporer. There were ecclesiastical electors – the Archbishop of Mainz, Trier, Cologne. There were four secular electors – Bohemia, Brandenberg, Palatine, Saxony.

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electors ran much of germany and elected emporer
Electors ran much of Germanyand elected Emporer
  • There were ecclesiastical electors – the Archbishop of Mainz, Trier, Cologne.
  • There were four secular electors – Bohemia, Brandenberg, Palatine, Saxony.
  • The Pope got to choose who were the ARCHBISHOPS. He chose whoever was politically advantageous to himself.
  • The Arch Bishop of Mainz was considered the Pope north of the Alps.
  • Side note: There were more many more than three archbisphorics in Germany. But these three were important. Also, cardinals might be seen as more important but these three archbisphorics held true weight.
  • He inherited his secular position.
  • Joachim had a younger brother, Albert.
joachim elector of brandenberg6
Joachim, elector of Brandenberg
  • He wanted his 24 year old younger brother to be an elector also.
  • Albrecht, the younger brother, wasn’t qualified and was already an archbishop of Magdeberg.
joachim elector of brandenberg8
Joachim, elector of Brandenberg
  • So the brothers offered Leo 20,000 ducats (gold coins). Leo took it and made Albrecht the Archbishop of Mainz.
  • Jaws dropped at the outright bribery.
tetzel sells grace
Tetzel sells Grace
  • Many, not just Luther, groaned at the whole circus of selling indulgences.
  • Tetzel was good at it.
  • He even had a jingle:
  • “When the bell on the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.”
luther s reaction
Luther’s Reaction
  • Luther was angered as a shepherd, teacher, preacher, and overseer of 11 Augustinian monasteries spread over the area.
95 theses
95 Theses
  • Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that place. Therefore he asks that those who cannot be present and dispute with him orally shall do so in their absence by letter. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.
95 theses16
95 Theses

1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, ``Repent'' (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.

95 theses17
95 Theses
  • 3. Yet its meaning is not restricted to repentance in one's heart; for such repentance is null unless it produces outward signs in various mortifications of the flesh.
95 theses18
95 Theses
  • 4. As long as hatred of self abides (i.e. true inward repentance) the penalty of sin abides, viz., until we enter the kingdom of heaven.
  • What does this mean? Faith saves, not detestment of sin. Judas detested his sin.
95 theses19
95 Theses
  • 6. The pope himself cannot remit guilt, but only declare and confirm that it has been remitted by God;
95 theses20
95 Theses
  • 13. Death puts an end to all the claims of the Church; even the dying are already dead to the canon laws, and are no longer bound by them.
95 theses21
95 Theses
  • 25. The same power as the pope exercises in general over purgatory is exercised in particular by every single bishop in his bishopric and priest in his parish.
95 theses22
95 Theses
  • 27. There is no divine authority for preaching that the soul flies out of the purgatory immediately the money clinks in the bottom of the chest.
95 theses23
95 Theses
  • 50. Christians should be taught that, if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence-preachers, he would rather the church of St. Peter were reduced to ashes than be built with the skin, flesh, and bones of the sheep.
95 theses24
95 Theses
  • 51. Christians should be taught that the pope would be willing, as he ought if necessity should arise, to sell the church of St. Peter, and give, too, his own money to many of those from whom the pardon-merchants conjure money.
95 theses25
95 Theses
  • 71. Let him be anathema and accursed who denies the apostolic character of the indulgences.
  • Humanists are laughing because there is no apostolic character to indulgences.
95 theses26
95 Theses
  • 79. It is blasphemy to say that the insignia of the cross with the papal arms are of equal value to the cross on which Christ died.
95 theses27
95 Theses
  • 82. They ask, e.g.: Why does not the pope liberate everyone from purgatory for the sake of love (a most holy thing) and because of the supreme necessity of their souls? This would be morally the best of all reasons. Meanwhile he redeems innumerable souls for money, a most perishable thing, with which to build St. Peter's church, a very minor purpose.
was luther na ve
Was Luther Naïve?
  • Luther believed that an enlightened era of learning allowed for discussion and rationale to prevail.
  • He believed most scholars and clergyman could be won over, if not the pope.
  • The pope is not amused with this mad “drunk monk.”
fredrick the wise
Fredrick the Wise
  • This elector truly liked Luther. Was Luther getting rid of a rival????
  • He protected Luther.
  • Tetzel ate into his profits from people buying the privilege to see his relics, but his interest in Luther appears to be a genuine desire for truth to prevail.
1517 letter to albert from luther
1517 – Letter to Albert from Luther
  • The same day that Martin nailed 95 Theses to door, he sent this letter to Albert…. The following are selections.
  • Spare me, Most Reverend Father in Christ and Most Illustrious Prince, that I, the dregs of humanity, have so much boldness that I have dared to think of a letter to the height of your Sublimity. The Lord Jesus is my witness that, conscious of my smallness and baseness, I have long deferred what I am now shameless enough to do, -- moved thereto most of all by the duty of fidelity which I acknowledge that I owe to your most Reverend Fatherhood in Christ. Meanwhile, therefore, may your Highness deign to cast an eye upon one speck of dust, and for the sake of your pontifical clemency to heed my prayer.
1517 letter to albert from luther37
1517 – Letter to Albert from Luther
  • Papal indulgences for the building of St. Peter's are circulating under your most distinguished name, and as regards them, I do not bring accusation against the outcries of the preachers, which I have not heard, so much as I grieve over the wholly false impressions which the people have conceived from them; to wit, -- the unhappy souls believe that if they have purchased letters of indulgence they are sure of their salvation; again, that so soon as they cast their contributions into the money-box, souls fly out of purgatory; furthermore, that these graces [i.e., the graces conferred in the indulgences] are so great that there is no sin too great to be absolved, even, as they say -- though the thing is impossible -- if one had violated the Mother of God; again, that a man is free, through these indulgences, from all penalty and guilt.
luther letter to pope 1518
Luther letter to Pope - 1518
  • To the Most Blessed Father, LEO X. Martin Luther, Augustinian Friar, wisheth everlasting welfare. I have heard evil reports about myself, most blessed Father, by which I know that certain friends have put my name in very bad odor with you and yours, saying that I have attempted to belittle the power of the keys and of the Supreme Pontiff. Therefore I am accused of heresy, apostasy, and perfidy, and am called by six hundred other names of ignominy. My ears shudder and my eyes are astounded.
luther letter to pope 151839
Luther letter to Pope - 1518
  • It is not long ago that the preaching of the Jubilee indulgences was begun in our country, and matters went so far that the preachers of indulgences, thinking that the protection of your name made anything permissible…
luther letter to pope 151840
Luther letter to Pope - 1518
  • None the less, however, stories about the avarice of the priests were bruited in the taverns, and evil was spoken of the power of the keys and of the Supreme Pontiff, and as evidence of this, I could cite the common talk of this whole land. I truly confess that I was on fire with zeal for Christ,
luther letter to pope 151841
Luther letter to Pope - 1518
  • Lo, this is the fire with which they complain that all the world is now ablaze!
  • Wherefore, most blessed Father, I cast myself at the feet of your Holiness, with all that I have and all that I am. Quicken, kill, call, recall, approve, reprove, as you will. In your voice I shall recognize the voice of Christ directing you and speaking in you. If I have deserved death, I shall not refuse to die. For the earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof. He is blessed forever. Amen. May He have you too forever in His keeping. Amen. ANNO MDXVIII.
secret trip to heidelberg to reconcile april 26 1518
Secret Trip to Heidelberg to reconcile – April 26, 1518
  • Luther traveled incognito to Heidelberg, having been warned of the possibility of assassination along the road. However, to his surprise, he was well-received and returned as if from a triumph. This emboldened Luther to question the primacy of the Roman Church and the power of excommunication.
secret trip to heidelberg to reconcile april 26 151844
Secret Trip to Heidelberg to reconcile – April 26, 1518
  • This trip was key. It formed alliances with very influential Tubingen University that was also desiring Reformation.
  • Imagine all the Baseball greats having one opportunity to get together.
martin bucer
Martin Bucer
  • Martin became a tremendous advocate for the Reformation.
  • When exiled to England, he had tremendous “Lutheran” influence on Thomas Crammener and the Book of Common Prayer.
tubingen connections
Tubingen Connections
  • Near Heidelberg was the Humanist university – Tubingen.
  • Luther made key connections with scholars of influence in this little known meeting.
phillip melancthon50
Phillip Melancthon
  • He is so moved by the whole idea of reformation that he moved to Wittenberg and gives first lecture on August 28, 1518.
luther is summoned to augsburg
Luther is summoned to Augsburg
  • Luther wants to talk.
  • The Pope sends Cardinal Cajetan to get evidence or to get Luther to recant.
  • All Luther has to say is “I revoke / recant” the writings under his name.
  • Luther can’t bring himself to do this.
augsburg disputation
Augsburg Disputation
  • Luther begins to realize Rome is not interested in changing the status quo.
  • Luther realizes no one is interested in open dialogue. This is a wake up call for the revolutionary dreamer!!!!
maxmillian i holy roman emporer diesjan 1519 this provides needed time out for a few months
Maxmillian I, Holy Roman Emporer diesJan. 1519. This provides needed TIME OUT for a few months.