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Eudicots. Chapter 8 Simpson, 2 nd Edition. coiled embryos. Caryophyllales. Polygonum - knotweed, smartweed. Eriogonum. Rumex. Non-core Caryophyllales. P (3+3) or (5) A (3+3), 8 G (3) superior. Polygonaceae - knotweed family 46/1200 north temperate.

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Chapter 8

Simpson, 2nd Edition

non core caryophyllales

Polygonum - knotweed, smartweed



Non-core Caryophyllales

P(3+3) or (5) A(3+3), 8 G(3) superior

Polygonaceae - knotweed family

46/1200 north temperate

ocrea- stipular sheath at base of petiolein most species; most apparent in herbaceous species

spiral leaves

halophytic herbs and shrubs

fruit a 3-sided achene

anthocyanin; no betalain

Rheum - rhubarb

non core caryophyllales1
Non-core Caryophyllales

Polygonaceae - knotweed family

Eriogonum flower

Eriogonum flower

non core caryophyllales2
Non-core Caryophyllales

ochrea of Polygonum

winged achene of Rumex

non core caryophyllales3
Non-core Caryophyllales

Polygonaceae - knotweed family

non core caryophyllales4

floating bog


peat moss

Non-core Caryophyllales

K(5-8) C(5-8) A(4-20) G(3) superior

  • Droseraceae - Sundew Family
  • 3/110 widespread in N and S hemispheres
  • boggy habitats
    • a nutrient-poor, acid peatland
    • peat mosses, ericaceous shrubs, and sedges
  • as it matures peat accumulates
    • layer is formed by the semi-consolidated remains of plant material
    • peat exists in a water logged region where chemical and physical conditions prevent rapid degradation
    • peat is a precursor to coal and when dried and burned, peat can be a significant energy source

Koelbjerg Woman, whose skull is shown here, is the oldest bog body known. We do not know how she met her end, as her bones show no sign of violence. She was, at most, 25 when she died around 8000 B.C. Her body ended up in open water, and the bones were not incorporated in peat until later. She may have simply drowned. (Fyns Stifsmuseum of Denmark, Odense)

Bog Bodies

  • 1000 bog bodies have been found in regions associated with the Celts of the Iron Age
  • the earliest bog body, that of Koelbjerg Woman, has been radiometrically dated at about 10,000 years old; she may simply have drowned
  • The newest is of the 16th century AD, a woman in Ireland who may have been buried in unhallowed ground following a suicide
  • the majority of the bog bodies belong to the Celtic Iron Age, some as late as the 4th century AD
  • Preserved bodies of humans and animals have been discovered in bogs in Britain, Ireland, northern Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, both Jutland and Zealand, and southern Sweden
  • Records of such finds go back as far as the 18th century. It is not readily apparent at the time of discovery whether a body has been buried in a bog for years, decades, or centuries. However, during the 20th century, forensic and medical technologies were developed that allow researchers to more closely determine the age of the burial, through radiocarbon dating, their age at death and many other details.
  • Scientists have been able to study their skin, reconstruct their appearance and even determine what their last meal was by their stomach contents.

"Red Franz"

non core caryophyllales5

Dionaeamuscipula - venus fly trap endemic to N. & S. Carolina

Non-core Caryophyllales

Droseraceae - Sundew Family

  • insectivorous
    • “carnivorous”
    • grow in acid environments
    • leaf jaw-like with hinged midrib
    • 3 trigger-hairs in trap


non core caryophyllales6

stipitate hairs

Drosera - sundew

Non-core Caryophyllales

Droseraceae - Sundew Family


  • insectivorous
    • “carnivorous”
    • grow in acid environments
    • leaves covered with long-stipitate insect-trapping glandular hairs
core caryophyllales

Atriplex (saltbush)



K(0-2) 3-5 (6-8) C0 A(1-2) 3-5 (6-8) G1(-3) (5) superior

Core Caryophyllales

Amaranthaceae (including Chenopodiaceae)

175/2000 temperate, subtropical

  • saline habitats
    • ocean beaches
    • salt marshes
    • saline/alkaline desert areas
  • some succulent
  • flowers small, inconspicuous
  • herbage covered by farinose (mealy) pubescence sometimes
  • Amaranthus fruit (grain) & leaves as foodsource
  • polyporate pollen
    • “chenoam”


core caryophyllales1

chenoam pollen

Core Caryophyllales


  • polyporate pollen
    • “chenoam”
    • pigweed

Core Caryophyllales


core caryophyllales2

Dianthus (sweet William)

pinked petals

Stellaria (chickweed)

Silene (campion)

K5 or (5) C5 A5 or 5+5 G(2-5+) superior

Core Caryophyllales

Caryophyllaceae- pink or carnation family

86/2400 cosmopolitan


cyme inflorescence

petals often notched (“pinked”)

sepals can be connate

free-central placentation

many colorful ornamentals

many wildflowers

many weeds

core caryophyllales3

P∞ A∞ G(3-∞) inferior

Core Caryophyllales

Cactaceae - cactus family

118/1500 New World, warm-temperate to tropical

1. stem-succulents

2. cladophyll = flattened stem

3. areoles = pad-like axillary nodes that bear spines

4. spines & glochids (tiny spines around areole = hairlike) in some

5. ephermeral leaves

6. inferior ovary; fruit a berry

7. few cm to giant candelabra-like “trees” to 20m

8. New World distribution - tropical origin

Cereus giganteus - saguaro

core caryophyllales4





Core Caryophyllales

Cactaceae - cactus family

  • Subfamily Pereskioideae

leafy trees and shrubs

scarcely succulent stems, w/o glochids

  • Subfamily Opuntioidea

leaves cylindrical, reduced, early-deciduous

jointed stems w/ glochids

  • Subfamily Maihuenioideae
    • persistent leaves
  • Subfamily Cactoideae

leaves extremely reduced (absent)

stems not jointed; glochids absent

    • Tribe Cereeae

vertically ribbed; flowers from old areoles; columnar cacti

    • Tribe Cacteae

ribbed stems; flowers from new areoles


core caryophyllales5
Core Caryophyllales

Cactaceae - cactus family

Opuntia - prickly pear


ephemeral leaves

core caryophyllales6


areole with spines and glochids

inferior ovary

Core Caryophyllales

Cactaceae - cactus family

core caryophyllales7
Core Caryophyllales

Cactaceae - cactus family

Bergerocactus emoryi