Zach, Tori, Tyler Pnictogens
Element Group 15 • Pnictogens are also commonly known as the element group 15. This group consists of: • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Arsenic • Antinomy • Bismuth
Uses of Pnictogens • Pnictogens are used in the following - Thermoelectric material - Electronics - Pharmeceuticals - Novel polymerics Common uses - matches, fireworks, smokebombs, and pesticides
History • Elements in group 15 are known as Pnictogens • Nitrogen was discovered by Rutherford in 1772 • Phosphorous was discovered by a German alchemist named Hennig Brand • Arsenic has been known since ancient times • Pnictogen came from the Greek word pnigein; which means to choke or to stifle, which is a property of breathing nitrogen gas. • Antimony was discovered as early as 3000 B.C. • Bismuth was known since ancient times. No one person was given credit for finding it
Group 15 • These elements are also noted for their stability in compounds due to their tendency for forming double and triple covalent bonds • This property leads mostly to there toxicity especially with phosphorus, arsenic and antimony • These are used in pesticides and fireworks
Phosphorous • Highly reactive because of its 5 electrons on its outermost shell • It combusts in oxygen and glows in the dark when exposed to it • It spontaneously ignites at room temperature to form phosphorus pentoxide • It is found in matches because it helps ignite fire but is also used to put out fires by using plasticizers • It is also important to our body because it is found in teeth, nervous tissue, bones, lipids and proteins
nitrogen • Colorless, odorless gas • Nitrogen came from the Latin words nitronand genes, for nitre(potassium nitrate)forming. • Used to freeze organic materials such as blood. • 30th most abundant element
Arsenic • Poisonous metalloid • 2 forms; grey metallic and yellow non-metallic. • Greek word arsenikon, arsenic containing mineral. • 53rd most abundant element • Found on the earths crust at 1.5 ppm
antimony • Several forms; blue-white metal, gray powdery non-metal. • Greek word anti and monos, meaning not alone because it cannot be found uncombined. • 63rd most abundant element • Found on the Earths crust at .2 ppm • It is toxic and was used as a weapon in ancient Greece
Arsenic When heated in the air, arsenic combines with oxygen to form arsenic oxide, a blue flame is produced, and a garlic like odor appears. Arsenic does not dissolve in water or most cold acids. Arsenic occurs in two allotropic forms. The more common form of arsenic is a shiny, gray, brittle, metallic-looking solid The less common form is a yellow crystalline solid When heated arsenic does not melt, it turns directly into a gas.
Bisthmus • Bismuth is a soft, silvery metal with a bright, shiny surface and a yellowish or pinkish tinge • The metal breaks easily and cannot be fabricated at room temperature • It expands as it changes from a liquid to a solid • Bisthmus combines slowly with oxygen at room temperature • At higher temperatures Bisthmus burns from Bisthmus oxide
Reactions • Nitrogen is very unreactive, the only element to react with the Nitrogen is Lithium at room temperature. • Magnesium reacts directly, but only when ignited. • Phosphorous reacts with metals to form phosphates, sulfur to form sulfides, halogens to from halides, and ignites in air to form oxides.
"Bismuth, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and Naming, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Occurrence in Nature, Isotopes." Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/A- C/Bismuth.html>. • "Visual Elements: Group 15." Royal Society of Chemistry | Advancing the Chemical Sciences. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/data/intro_groupv_data.html>.