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Zach, Tori, Tyler

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  1. Zach, Tori, Tyler Pnictogens

  2. Element Group 15 • Pnictogens are also commonly known as the element group 15. This group consists of: • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Arsenic • Antinomy • Bismuth

  3. Uses of Pnictogens • Pnictogens are used in the following - Thermoelectric material - Electronics - Pharmeceuticals - Novel polymerics Common uses - matches, fireworks, smokebombs, and pesticides

  4. History • Elements in group 15 are known as Pnictogens • Nitrogen was discovered by Rutherford in 1772 • Phosphorous was discovered by a German alchemist named Hennig Brand • Arsenic has been known since ancient times • Pnictogen came from the Greek word pnigein; which means to choke or to stifle, which is a property of breathing nitrogen gas. • Antimony was discovered as early as 3000 B.C. • Bismuth was known since ancient times. No one person was given credit for finding it

  5. Group 15 • These elements are also noted for their stability in compounds due to their tendency for forming double and triple covalent bonds • This property leads mostly to there toxicity especially with phosphorus, arsenic and antimony • These are used in pesticides and fireworks

  6. Phosphorous • Highly reactive because of its 5 electrons on its outermost shell • It combusts in oxygen and glows in the dark when exposed to it • It spontaneously ignites at room temperature to form phosphorus pentoxide • It is found in matches because it helps ignite fire but is also used to put out fires by using plasticizers • It is also important to our body because it is found in teeth, nervous tissue, bones, lipids and proteins

  7. nitrogen • Colorless, odorless gas • Nitrogen came from the Latin words nitronand genes, for nitre(potassium nitrate)forming. • Used to freeze organic materials such as blood. • 30th most abundant element

  8. Arsenic • Poisonous metalloid • 2 forms; grey metallic and yellow non-metallic. • Greek word arsenikon, arsenic containing mineral. • 53rd most abundant element • Found on the earths crust at 1.5 ppm

  9. antimony • Several forms; blue-white metal, gray powdery non-metal. • Greek word anti and monos, meaning not alone because it cannot be found uncombined. • 63rd most abundant element • Found on the Earths crust at .2 ppm • It is toxic and was used as a weapon in ancient Greece

  10. Arsenic When heated in the air, arsenic combines with oxygen to form arsenic oxide, a blue flame is produced, and a garlic like odor appears. Arsenic does not dissolve in water or most cold acids. Arsenic occurs in two allotropic forms. The more common form of arsenic is a shiny, gray, brittle, metallic-looking solid The less common form is a yellow crystalline solid When heated arsenic does not melt, it turns directly into a gas.

  11. Bisthmus • Bismuth is a soft, silvery metal with a bright, shiny surface and a yellowish or pinkish tinge • The metal breaks easily and cannot be fabricated at room temperature • It expands as it changes from a liquid to a solid • Bisthmus combines slowly with oxygen at room temperature • At higher temperatures Bisthmus burns from Bisthmus oxide

  12. Reactions • Nitrogen is very unreactive, the only element to react with the Nitrogen is Lithium at room temperature. • Magnesium reacts directly, but only when ignited. • Phosphorous reacts with metals to form phosphates, sulfur to form sulfides, halogens to from halides, and ignites in air to form oxides.

  13. Structure and Red Phosphorus

  14. "Bismuth, Chemical Element - Overview, Discovery and Naming, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Occurrence in Nature, Isotopes." Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/A- C/Bismuth.html>. • "Visual Elements: Group 15." Royal Society of Chemistry | Advancing the Chemical Sciences. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/data/intro_groupv_data.html>.