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Transformations Around the Globe. Chapter 12. China Resists Outside Influence. Section 1. Western economic pressure forces China to open foreign trade & influence 1793, China rejects gifts brought by British ambassador China is strong politically because it is largely self-sufficient

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Transformations Around the Globe

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china the west

Western economic pressure forces China to open foreign trade & influence

  • 1793, China rejects gifts brought by British ambassador
  • China is strong politically because it is largely self-sufficient
    • Agriculture, mining, manufacturing is highly productive
  • China earns more from exports than it spends on imports
  • British smuggle opium; many Chinese become addicted
China & the West
war breaks out

1839, Opium War erupts – fight caused by opium trade

  • China loses the war to more modern British navy
  • Treaty of Nanjing (1842) gives British control of Hong Kong
  • 1844, other nations win extraterritorial rights
    • Rights mean foreigners exempt from Chinese laws at ports
War Breaks Out
the taiping rebellion

Late 1830’s, Hong Xiuquan recruits followers to build new China

  • 1850’s, Hong’s army grows large, captures large areas in southeast
  • 1864, rebellion defeated by internal fighting & outside attacks by British & French
    • At least 20 million people died in the rebellion
The Taiping Rebellion
foreign influence grows

1862-1908, Dowager Empress Cixi rules China

    • Reforms in education, government, & military
    • Prefers traditional way of life
  • China suffers attacks from other nations & forced to grant more rights to other countries
  • Europeans & Japan gain spheres of influence
    • Foreign nations controlled trade & investment
  • U.S. declares Open Door Policy (1899)
    • Chinese trade open to all nations
Foreign Influence Grows
the boxer rebellion

Anti-government, anti-European peasants form secret organization – Society of Righteous & Harmonious Fists

    • Known as “The Boxers”
  • 1900, they launch the Boxer Rebellion – their campaign for reforms
  • Rebels take Beijing, but foreign army defeats them, ending the rebellion
  • Rebellion fails, but Chinese nationalism emerges
The Boxer Rebellion
japan ends its isolation

Treaty of Kanagwa – Japan opens two ports to American ships

  • By 1860, Japan has trade agreements with many nations
  • Meiji Era – time of reform by emperor, Mutsuhito
    • Makes reforms & modernizing using Western models
  • By early 1900, Japan had industrialized & is competitive with the West
Japan Ends Its Isolation
imperial japan

By 1890, has strong navy & large army

  • In 1894, Japan gets Western nations to give up special rights
  • Japan forces Korea to open 3 ports to trade with
  • Japan & China agree not to send troops to Korea
  • China sends troops to put down rebellion in Korea
  • Japan drives Chinese out of Korea & gains Chinese territory
Imperial Japan
russo japanese war

1903, Japan & Russia begin struggle over Manchuria

  • Japan attacks Russia in 1904
  • 1905, the Treaty of Portsmouth ends the war; Japan gained captured territories
    • Treaty drafted by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt
    • Signed off the coast of New Hampshire on a ship
Russo-Japanese War
japan occupies korea

Japan makes Korea a protectorate

  • 1910, Japan completes the annexation of Korea
  • Japan rules harshly in Korea which leads to Korean nationalism
Japan Occupies Korea
latin america after independence

Economic system kept peasants in debt & landowners grew wealthy

  • Caudillos – military dictators – gain & hold power backed by the military
    • Ruled in most of Latin American countries
  • Reformers sometimes gain office, but eventually forced out
  • Wealthy landowners support caudillos; poor have few rights
Latin America After Independence
latin american economies

Depend on exporting 1 or 2 products

  • Trains & refrigeration increase demand for L. Am. food
  • L. Am. Imports manufactured goods
  • Build few schools, roads, & hospitals
  • Gov’t forced to borrow money from other countries
  • Loans not repaid, property repossessed; foreign control increases
Latin American Economies
the monroe doctrine

Newly independent countries of Americas are insecure

  • 1823, Pres. James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine
    • Europe cannot colonize anything in North or South America
The Monroe Doctrine
cuba declares independence

1895, Jose Marti, Cuban writer, launches war for Cuban independence

  • U.S. fights to help Cuba in 1898, leading to the Spanish-American War
  • 1901, Cuba nominally independent; US has significant control
  • After war, Spain gives the U.S. – Puerto Rico, Guam, & the Philippines
Cuba Declares Independence
connecting the oceans

U.S. wants faster way from going east to west by ship

  • Pres. T. Roosevelt backs idea of building canal across Panama
  • Colombia rejects Roosevelt’s $10 million canal offer
  • 1903, Panama gains independence from Colombia with the help of the U.S.
  • In return, Panama gives land to U.S. to build canal & the canal opens in 1914
Connecting the Oceans
the roosevelt corollary

U.S. gains influence in L. America

  • Many U.S. business investments in Cuba & in other nations
  • 1904, T. Roosevelt issues update of the Monroe Doctrine
  • The Roosevelt Corollary – U.S. can be the police power in North & South America
  • U.S. uses the corollary to justify repeated military interventions
The Roosevelt Corollary
santa anna mexican war

Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana dominates politics in Mexico

    • President four times from 1833-1855
  • 1820’s Mexican officials encourage Americans to settle in TX
    • “Anglos” settle in TX & want more self-government
    • Cause problems with Mexico
  • 1835, Texans revolt & win independence
    • Santa Anna looses power
Santa Anna & Mexican War

1845, US annexes Texas; Mexico outraged

  • 1846, war breaks out between US & Mexico
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends war
    • Northern 3rd of Mexico to US
    • Santa Anna, who had lost war, looses power again
french invade mexico

Conservatives plot with Europeans to defeat Benito Juarez

    • Liberal reformer who wanted to make changes
  • 1862, French sent army to Mexico & take control of country
    • Put Austrian Archduke Maximilian as emperor
  • Fighting continues for 5 years & Maximilian is defeated
  • Juarez president again until death in 1872
French Invade Mexico
diaz order progress

Porfirio Diaz takes power in 1876

    • Builds power & suppresses opponents
    • Trades land for political support = elections meaningless
  • Brings order to Mexico, but freedom is reduced
  • Rich stay wealthy & poor suffer
  • Unrest over harsh rule grows throughout Mexico
Diaz & “Order & Progress”

Reformer Francisco Madero calls for armed revolt against Diaz

  • “Pancho Villa” – leader from north
  • Emiliano Zapata – leader from south
  • Both Villa & Zapata have significant victories over Diaz’s army
  • Diaz forced to step down – new elections in 1911
revolution civil war

1911 – Madero elected President – unrest continues

  • 1913, Madero resigns & General Victoriano Huerta takes over
  • Rebels start fight that last 15 months & Carranza becomes President
  • Civil War ends in 1919 with Zapata’s death
  • Mexico gets new constitution which provides land reform, education, & worker’s rights
Revolution & Civil War