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Celebrity Endorsers & Brand-Target Audience Fit . Rachel Davis Chris Gonzalez Ben Gradoville Amy Holden Lindsay Momberg Bridget Niedermyer. Statistics. In 1975, only 15% of prime time TV advertising featured celebrities In 1978, it went up to 20%, and approximately

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celebrity endorsers brand target audience fit

Celebrity Endorsers & Brand-Target Audience Fit

Rachel Davis

Chris Gonzalez

Ben Gradoville

Amy Holden

Lindsay Momberg

Bridget Niedermyer

statistics
Statistics
  • In 1975, only 15% of prime time TV advertising featured celebrities
  • In 1978, it went up to 20%, and approximately
  • 10% of the dollars spent on TV advertising featured celebrities
  • Approximately 25% of all commercials include celebrity endorsers currently.
theories
Theories
  • Four different theories that touch base on the importance of choosing the right celebrity and the benefits associated with finding the right match:
    • The Product Match-Up Hypothesis
    • Source Credibility Model
    • The Source Attractiveness Model
    • The Meaning Transfer Model
match up hypothesis
Match-Up Hypothesis
  • The Product Match-Up Hypothesis
  • The Product Match-up Hypothesis literature maintains that messages conveyed by the celebrity image and the product should be congruent for effective advertising (Forkan, 1980; Kahle and Homer, 1985; Kamins, 1989, 1990)
source credibility
Source Credibility
  • Source Credibility Model
  • Effectiveness of a message depends on perceived level of expertise and trustworthiness of an endorser (Hovland and Weiss, 1951; Hovland et al., 1953; Ohanian, 1991)
source attractiveness
Source Attractiveness
  • The Source Attractiveness Model
  • Contends that the effectiveness of a message depends on the similarity, familiarity, and liking of an endorser (McGuire, 1968)
meaning transfer
Meaning Transfer
  • The Meaning Transfer Model
  • This process involves three stages: the formation of celebrity image, transfer of meaning from celebrity to product, and finally from product to consumers (McCracken, 1989)
  • The word “celebrities” promises excitement, amusement and fun.
brand image
Brand Image
  • As well as enhancing brand equity, celebrities can be used to promote new brand images, help reposition brands, and introduce new brands to the market.
  • Jello (Bill Cosby)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpUybAMfa-0

fit congruence and belongingness
Fit, Congruence, and Belongingness
  • Numerous brands have found celebrities that “fit” with their product
  • Example: Neutrogena -Brand targets the teen generation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXaFND4XJLM

fit congruence and belongingness1
Fit, Congruence, and Belongingness
  • -Advertising a product via a celebrity whose image is highly congruent with the brand leads to greater advertiser and celebrity believability compared with a situation in which there is low congruence (Kamins and Gupta, 1994)
fit congruence and belongingness2
Fit, Congruence, and Belongingness
  • Athletes endorse sports drinks (Gatorade)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9uE4OtTXPc&feature=related

fit congruence and belongingness3
Fit, Congruence, and Belongingness
  • Models and actresses endorse Make-up
fit congruence and belongingness4
Fit, Congruence, and Belongingness
  • Models and actresses endorse clothing
global marketing
Global Marketing
  • Extremely Difficult
  • Cultural “Road Blocks”
  • Good Fit=Huge success
  • Spice Girls

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lrq0rTRqOoE&feature=related

findings
Findings
  • Costly Contract Plans
    • Cocoa Cola (Bill Cosby, $25 Million)
    • IBM (MASH, $40 Million)
    • NIKE (Lebron $90 Million)
    • Milk ( $70 Million/ yr)-USA Today
bad match ups
Bad Match-Ups

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgec97MfTKw

research study
Research Study
  • The Economic Worth of Celebrity Endorsers: An Event Study Analysis

(JagdishAgrawal & Wagner A. Kamakura ’95)

abnormal returns
Abnormal Returns

Abnormal Returns Due to Announcement of

Celebrity Contracts

results
Results
  • Generally viewed as a profitable advertising strategy
  • Investors and Shareholders
  • Average + .44% abnormal return in Market Value
  • Benefits outweigh Costs
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Weigh your options
  • Determine fit
  • Brand Image/ Research
  • Spend money wisely
    • Short term contracts
  • PLAN FOR FUTURE