Theories of Learning. Behaviourist, Cognitive and Constructivist Approaches. Behaviourism: Conditioning and Schedules of Reinforcement. Behaviourism: Observational Learning. Albert Bandura and neobehavioural approach called “Social Learning Theory” 4 process Attention Retention
Theories of Learning Behaviourist, Cognitive and Constructivist Approaches
Behaviourism: Observational Learning • Albert Bandura and neobehavioural approach called “Social Learning Theory” • 4 process • Attention • Retention • Reproduction • Motivation
Group Work In your group, think of a simple skill that someone could learn (ie. Juggling, shooting a basketball, riding a bike, making a sandwich, etc.) Write down how someone would go about learning that task through observation following the 4 steps in the process (attention, retention, reproduction, motivation) Choose one person in your group to be the model and another person to be the learner/observer and demonstrate to the class how the skill would be learned
Forms of Reinforcement Direct reinforcement – receive reinforcement directly Vicarious reinforcement – see others being reinforced for that behaviour Self-reinforcement – controlling your own reinforcers (self-management)
Discussion Should Students be rewarded for learning?
Cognitive Approach • Cognition: thinking and how we think • Learning: learners are active - ARUK (Acquiring, Remembering and Using Knowledge) • The Brain: the brain shapes and is shaped by cognitive processing activities • Knowledge: Knowledge and knowing are outcomes of learning
Constructivist Approach(Sociocultural Approach) • Learning occurs through social and cultural experiences • VYGOTSKY • “Zones of proximal development” – scaffolding from adults or peers • Culture and cognition is bidirectional – mediated through interaction with others • Student-centered learning • Authentic learning opportunities
Sources Sproule, Wayne. Our Social World: An Introduction to Anthropology, Psychology and Sociology. Toronto: Prentice Hall, 2001. Educational Psychology and Special Education. Boston: Pearson Learning Solutions, 2012.