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The Special Senses Eye and Ear. Lecture 10. The special senses of the eyes and ears are SENSORY input devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

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The special senses eye and ear

The Special Senses Eye and Ear

Lecture 10



Some definitions
Some definitions devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

Stimulus

- change in the environment

Receptor

- device to detect a stimulus

Response

- the interpretation of the stimulus causing some action from the body


Anatomy
Anatomy devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

  • Sclera = outer protective layer of the eye white portion.

  • Cornea = transparent anterior part of the sclera,.

  • Choroid = middle layer of the eye.

  • Iris = muscular structure that give the eye its color, allows light to pass through.

  • Pupil = opening in the center of the iris.

  • Lens = behind the pupil, focus and bend light.

  • Retina = innermost layer, contains the vision receptors.


The eye devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.


Anatomy1
Anatomy devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

  • Aqueous fluid = watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye.

  • Vitreous fluid = jelly like fluid found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye.

  • Lacrimal glands & ducts = produce and drain tears.

  • Optic nerve = carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain.

  • Conjunctiva = mucous membrane lining the eyelids and anterior portion of the sclera.


Section through the eye devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.


The eye
The Eye devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

Blephar/o eyelid

Choroid/o choroid

Corne/o

Kerat/o cornea

Dacry/o lacrim/o tear, tear duct.

Dipl/o double

Irid/o iri/o iris

Conjunctiv/o conjunctiva.

Cur/o core/o pupill/o pupil


Ophthalm/o devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.ocul/o eye

Opt/o vision

Retin/o retina

Scler/o sclera

Cry/o cold

Phot/o light

Ton/o tension, pressure.


New suffixes
New Suffixes devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

-spasm twitching

e.g., blepharospasm

-opia vision

e.g., diplopia

-plegia paralysis

e.g., iridoplegia

- Bi- bin- two.

-ician one who.

-phobia abnormal fear of or aversion to


An OPHTHALMOSCOPE is a device to devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

examine the interior of the eye

High Blood Pressure (HTN) may cause OPHTHALMODYNIA (pain in the eye)


A swelling of the eyelid is called devices. The eyes and ears detect sensory information from the environment. They are responsible for sending this input to the brain for interpretation.

BLEPHAREDEMA

Plastic surgery of the eye to remove wrinkles is called an eye tuck or

BLEPHAROPLASTY



  • A laser KERATOTOMY is a procedure that can eliminate the need for eyeglasses.

  • MYOPIA (nearsightedness) is a condition where the stimulus image falls in front of the retina.

  • The opposite of myopia is farsightedness or HYPEROPIA where the image falls behind the retina.

  • Both myopia and hyperopia can be corrected with glasses.


  • The eyelids protect the eyes, shade eyes during sleep, and spread lubricating fluid.

  • This lubricating fluid come from three areas: LACRIMAL GLANDS located above the outer corner of each eye, LACRIMAL DUCTS which drain gland secretions into the lacrimal sacs.

  • The term DACRY/O is used to denote tears.

  • The word DACRYADENALGIA means

    pain in a tear gland


Disease disorder terms
Disease & Disorder Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Blepharitis = inflammation of the eyelid.

  • Blepharoptosis = drooping of the eyelid.

  • Conjunctivitis = inflammation of the conjunctiva.

  • Dacryocystitis = inflammation of the tear sac.

  • Diplopia = double vision.

  • Iridoplegia = paralysis of the iris.

  • Keratitis = inflammation of the cornea.

  • Ophthalmalgia = pain in the eye.

  • Ophthalmorrhagia = rabid flow of blood from the eye.


Disease disorder terms1
Disease & Disorder Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Photophobia = fear of, sensitivity to light.

  • Retinoblastoma = tumor arising from the developing retinal cell.

  • Sclerokeratitis = inflammation of the sclera and cornea.

  • Scleromalcia = softening of the sclera.

  • Astigmatism = defective curvature of the refractive surface of the eye.

  • Cataract = clouding of the lens of the eye.

  • Glaucoma = increased intraocular tension.


Disease disorder terms2
Disease & Disorder Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Hyperopia = farsightedness.

  • Myopia = nearsightedness.

  • Nyctalopia = poor vision at night.

  • Nystagmus = involuntary, rhythmic movements of the eye.

  • Retinitis pigmentosa = hereditary progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes.

  • Strabismus = squint or crossed eyes.

  • Sty = an acute infection of the secretory glands of the eyelids.


Surgical terms
Surgical Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Blepharoplasty = surgical repair of the eyelid.

  • Dacryocystotomy = incision into the tear sac.

  • Iridectomy = excision of part of the iris.

  • Keratoplasty = surgical repair of the cornea.

  • Cryoextraction of the lens = cataract is lifted from the eye with an extremely cold probe.

  • Enucleation = removal of the eye.

  • Vitrectomy = removal of all or part of the vitreous fluid.


Surgical terms1
Surgical Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Redial keratotomy = spoke like incisions are made to flatten the cornea, correctingn nearsightedness (myopia).

  • Strabotomy = incision into the tendon of an extrinsic muscle to relieve strabismus.

  • Fluorescein Angiography = x-ray filming of the blood vessels using fluorescing dye.

  • Keratometer = used to measure the curvature of the cornea.

  • Ophthalmoscope = used for visual examination of the eye.


Procedural terms for the eye
Procedural Terms for the EYE spread lubricating fluid.

  • Optometer = used to measure vision, power and range.

  • Pupillometer = used to measure width and diameter of the pupil.

  • Tonometer = used to measure pressure within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma.


Complementary terms
Complementary Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Binocular = pertaining to both eyes.

  • Intraocular = pertaining to within the eye.

  • Lacrimal = pertaining to tears or tear duct.

  • Ophthalmic = pertaining to the eye.

  • Ophthalmologist = physician who specializes in ophthalmology.

  • Optic = pertaining to vision.

  • Optician = one who is skilled in filling prescription for lenses.

  • Retinopathy = noninflammatory disease of the retina.


Complementary terms1
Complementary Terms spread lubricating fluid.

  • Miotic = agent that constricts the pupil.

  • Mydriatic = agent that dilates the pupil.

  • Oculus dexter = OD, right eye.

  • Oculus sinister = OS, left eye.

  • Oculus uterque = OU, each eye.

  • Optometrist = health professional who prescribes corrective lenses.

  • Visual acuity = VA, sharpness of vision of either distance or nearness.


The ear
The Ear spread lubricating fluid.

  • The ear has three divisions:

    outer ear (external ear)

    middle ear

    inner ear

  • The outer ear takes sound waves and directs them into the ear canal.

  • The middle ear takes those sound waves and converts them to electrical energy.

  • The inner ear takes that electrical energy and transmits it to the brain. It also is responsible for balance.



  • Vibrations of the eardrum cause a mechanical vibration of the three middle ear bones. The MALLEUS (hammer), INCUS, and STAPES. Each of these bones are connected. The malleus is connected to the tympanic membrane.

  • Once the vibration is detected at the last bone (STAPES), the stapes cause a vibration at the opening of the inner ear, OVAL WINDOW.

  • The middle ear is connected to the throat by the EUSTACIAN TUBE.


  • The inner ear includes the COCHLEA and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS.

  • The cochlea is filled with fluid and small hair cells that detect minute vibrations. These vibrations are interpreted by the brain via the AUDITORY NERVE.

  • The SEMICIRCULAR CANALS are also filled with fluid. Sudden movements of the head cause this fluid to move. This eventually causes dizziness (vertigo).


Anatomy2
Anatomy

  • Auricle, pinna = bilateral of the head, directs sound waves in the external auditory meatus.

  • External auditory meatus = short tube ends at the tympanic membrane.

  • Tympanic membrane = eardrum semitransparent membrane that separates the external meatus and the middle ear cavity.

  • Eustachian tube = connects the middle ear and the pharynx (throat). Regulates air pressure.

  • Ossicles = bones of the middle ear, carry sound vibrations, malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup).


Anatomy3
Anatomy

  • Inner ear Labyrinth = bony spaces within the temporal bone of the skull.

  • Cochlea =snail shaped and contains the organ of hearing.

  • Semicircular canals & vestibule = contains receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its balance or equilibrium.

  • Mastoid bone and cells = located in the skull bone behind the external auditory meatus.


Combining forms for the ear
Combining Forms for the EAR

  • Acou/o audi/o = hearing

  • Aur/i aur/o = ear.

  • Labyrinth/o = labyrinth.

  • Mastoid/o = mastoid bone.

  • Myring/o = tympanic membrane (eardrum).

  • Ot/o = ear.

  • Staped/o = stapes (middle ear bone).

  • Tympan/o = tympanic membrane, eardrum.

  • Salping/o eustachian tube


Disease and disorder terms
Disease and Disorder Terms

  • Labyrinthitis = inflammation of the labyrinth.

  • Mastoiditis = inflammation of the mastoid bone.

  • Myringitis = inflammation of the eardrum.

  • Otalgia = pain in the ear.

  • Otomycosis = fungus in the ear.

  • Otopyorrhea = discharge of pus from the ear.

  • Tympanitis = inflammation of the middle ear.

  • Otitis Meida.

  • Ceruminoma = tumor of the glands that secrete earwax.


Disease and disorder terms1
Disease and Disorder Terms

  • Otitis externa = inflammation of the outer ear.

  • Otitis media = inflammation of the middle ear.

  • Tinnitus = ringing in the ears.

  • Vertigo= dizziness.


Surgical terms2
Surgical Terms

  • Labyrinthectomy = excision of the labyrinth.

  • Mastoidectomy = excision of the mastoid bone.

  • Myringoplasty = surgical repair of the tympanic membrane.

  • Myringotomy = incision of the tympanic membrane, performed to release pus and relieve pressure in the middle ear.

  • Tympanoplasty = surgical repair of the eardrum.


Procedural terms
Procedural Terms

  • Acoumeter = instrument used to measure, acuteness of hearing.

  • Audiogram = graphic record of hearing.

  • Audiometry = measurement of hearing.

  • Otoscopy = visual examination of the ear.

  • Tympanometer = instrument to measure middle ear functions.


Complementary terms2
Complementary Terms

  • Audiologist = one who is skilled in and specializes in audiology.

  • Audiology = study of hearing.

  • Otologist = physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear.

  • Otology = study of the ear.

  • Otorhinolaryngologist = ENT physician who studies and treats diseases and disorders of the ear, (ear, nose, & throat).