Painting with Words Poetry
Form- the structure of the writing (what it looks like on the page) Innocent If love were a crime, And you were jailed because you claimed that you loved me, And evidence was sought of your guilt or innocence, You’d get away scott free.
All poems are broken up into lines. The length of each line and where it breaks, or ends, contributes to the poem’s meaning and sounds. Lunchroom I was so hungry I could have eaten my algebra book. I smelled what we were having before I even saw it. Mystery Meat, green mushy peas, instant potatoes with lumpy gravy, bread pudding, and milk. It’s a good thing I like milk.
A stanza is a group of lines. Stanzas work together to convey the overall message of the poem. Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on.
A couplet is a rhymed pair of lines that may be written in any rhythmic pattern. When the bright lamp is carried in, The sunless hours again begin; O’er all without, in field and lane, The haunted night begins again.
Just as a story has a narrator, a poem has a voice that “talks” to readers. This voice, or speaker, is sometimes a fictional character rather than the poet. Mother to Son Well, son, I’ll tell you: Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. It’s had tacks in it. And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor- Bare. -Langston Hughes
Rhythm is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in each line. A regular pattern of rhythm is called meter. The sun did not shine; It was too wet to play, So we sat in the house All that cold, cold, wet day. -Dr. Seuss
Rhyme is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words, as in sun and one. • Rhyme scheme is the pattern that the end-rhyming words follow. To identify rhyme scheme, assign a letter to each sound. ‘Twas the night before Christmas, A When all through the houseB Not a creature was stirring, C Not even a mouse; B
Repetition is a technique in which a sound, word, phrase, or line is repeated for emphasis or unity. Repetition often helps to reinforce meaning or create an appealing rhythm. Mi Madre I say feed me. She serves red prickly pear on a spike cactus. I say tease me. She sprinkles raindrops in my face on a sunny day. I say frighten me. She shouts thunder, flashes lightning. I say comfort me, She invites me to lay on her firm body.
Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. “Over a Bunsen burner bubbled a big earthenware dish of stew” -A Wrinkle in Time The repetition of the “b” sound reproduces the motion of the stew simmering in its pot. Say to them, Say to the down-keepers. The sun-slappers, The self-spoilers, -Gwendolyn Brooks
Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words: e.g., the words “cry” and “side” have the same vowel sound so they are said to be in assonance. “It’s had tacks in it,” -Langston Hughes “True, I do like Sue.”
“Afternoon on a Hill” I will be the gladdest thing-a Under the sun!-b I will touch a hundred flowers-c And not pick one.-b I will look at cliffs and clouds-d With quiet eyes,-e Watch the wind bow down the grass,-f And the grass rise.-e And when lights begin to show-g Up from the town,-h I will mark which must be mine, -i And then start down!-h
Imagery is defined as language that appeals to one or more of your senses-sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Vivid images help readers more clearly understand what a poet does. “They were standing in a sunlit field, and the air about them was moving with the delicious air that comes only on the rarest of spring days when the sun’s touch is gentle and the apple blossoms are just beginning to unfold.” (sight and smell) “’Oh, my dears,’ came the new voice, a rich voice with the warmth of a woodwind, the clarity of a trumpet, the mystery of an English horn.” (sound)
A simile is a comparison of two unlike things using the word like or as. The sun spun like A tossed coin. It whirled on the azure blue sky, It clattered into the horizon, It clicked in the slot, And neon-lights popped And blinked “Time expired,” As on a parking meter. -Oswald MbuyiseniMtshali
Metaphors are comparisons of two things that does not use the word like or as. In the pond in the park all things are doubled: Long buildings hang and wriggle gentle. Chimneys are bent legs bouncing on clouds below.” -May Swensen
Extended metaphor refers to a metaphor that extends over several lines, stanzas, or an entire poem. But all they want to do is tie the poem to a chair with rope and torture a confession out of it. They begin beating it with a hose to find out what it really means. -Billy Collins The poem is compared to a person being tortured.
Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose sounds echo their meanings • Skilled writers choose words whose sounds intensify images and suggest meanings. • Example: Stilled his fretful wail by saying, “Hush! the Naked Bear will hear thee!” Lulled him into slumber, singing, “Ewa-yea! my little owlet!” ~Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Song of Hiawatha
Personification is a description of an object, animal, or idea as if it has human qualities and emotions. Directly ahead of her was the circular building, its walls glowing with violet flame, its silvery roof pulsing with a light that seemed to Meg to be insane.” “The little waves with their soft, white hands.”
Ballad—a type of narrative poem that tells a story and was originally meant to be sung or recited. • tells a story • has a setting, plot, & characters • usually written in 4-line stanzas with regular rhythm & rhyme • focuses on ordinary people who have unusual adventures or perform daring deeds • Example: “Boots of Spanish Leather”
Blank verse - unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter • Each line contains 5 pairs of syllables in which a stressed syllable is followed by an unstressed syllable. • Imitates the natural rhythms of English speech • Many of Shakespeare’s poems were written in blank verse.
Elegy--an extended meditative poem in which the speaker reflects on death • Often a tribute to someone who has recently died • Written in formal, dignified language • Serious in tone • Example: “O Captain! My Captain” by Walt Whitman
Epic--a long narrative poem on a serious subject • Presented in an elevated or formal style • Traces the adventures of a great hero whose actions reflect the ideals & values of a nation or race • Addresses universal concerns • good & evil • life & death • sin & redemption • Example: The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Free verse--poetry that does not contain regular patterns of rhythm or rhyme • lines flow more naturally & have a rhythm similar to everyday speech • may contain rhythmic & sound effects such as repetitions of syllables or words • Example: “Introduction to Poetry” by Billy Collins
Haiku--a 3-line poem with 17 syllables • Lines 1 & 3 contain 5 syllables each • Line 2 contains 7 syllables • originated in Japan • Example: On sweet plum blossoms The sun rises suddenly. Look, a mountain path!
Limerick--a short, humorous poem composed of 5 lines • usually has a rhyme scheme of aabba • consists of 2 rhyming couplets followed by a 5th line that rhymes with the first couplet • typically has a sing-song rhythm • Example: There was an old man with a light, Who was dressed in garment of white; He held a small candle, With never a handle, And danced all the merry long night.
Lyric--a short poem in which a single speaker expresses personal thoughts & feelings • characterized by strong melodic rhythms • has a variety of forms • covers many subjects, from love & death to everyday experiences • Example: “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes
Narrative--poetry that tells a story • contains elements of fiction such as characters, setting, & plot • contains poetic elements such as rhyme, rhythm, imagery, & figurative language • Example: “Paul Revere’s Ride” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Ode--a lyric poem that deals with a serious subject • Themes include justice, truth, beauty, etc. • appeal to the imagination & intellect • Many odes commemorate events or praise people or elements of nature. • Example: “Ode on Solitude” by Alexander Pope
Sonnet--a poem with formal structure • contains 14 lines & a specific rhyme scheme & meter • often consists of 3 quatrains (4-line stanzas), & a final couplet • Example: “On the Grasshopper and Cricket” by John Keats