Civil War In France
Our objectives: • How did Calvinist beliefs threaten the French monarchy? • You will learn that religion was not the only reason for the wars… • Know the events leading up to the St. Bartholomew day massacre. • Who is a Politique and what were his/her beliefs? • What did the Edict of Nantes do for France?
Between 1560 (The League of Augsburg) and 1648 Two Major Wars caused devastation for Europe
After these wars, Religion would cease to have a major role in European Warfare But the memory of the Religious Wars would go a long ways toward bringing about a religious freedom and the separation of church and state It must also be considered, that though religion has been cited as the main catalyst for these wars,ECONOMICS and POLITICAL ALLIANCES were perhaps equally important
The French Religious Wars… France was largest country in Europe Calvinism spread quickly into France (Calvin himself was French)
In France, a large proportion of the nobility became Protestant • Like Germany, these nobles wanted the right to choose the religion of their area • Many towns converted to Protestantism
The wars of religion in France were only in part due to actual religious conflicts. In actuality, according to many sources, these wars are representative of the traditional conflict between the established powers in France (the king, the nobility, the Parliaments …). • Due to the establishment of the Gallican church (Concordat of Bologna) most Frenchmen were Catholic.
In 1559 Henry II dies in a joust—Catherine Medici, his widow, is left with three young sons.
The Valois Family:The Beginning of the End • Henry II was the last powerful Valois • Three weak sons followed in Valois line: 1559-1589 • Francis II (15 years old) • Charles IX • Henry III
The Setting: “Boy Kings” Francis II 1559-60, (born 1544) Charles IX, 1560-74 (born 1550) Henry III, 1574-89 (born 1551)
Catherine de Medici • Catherine de Medici controlled the sons: • fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France • Developed a reputation for cruelty
Other Families Fighting For Control • Between 40-50% of nobles became Calvinists (Huguenots)—many were Bourbons • Many nobles converted for religious reasons but some sought independence from the crown. • Resulted in resurgence of feudal disorder in France • The Bourbons were next in line to inherit the throne if the Valois did not produce a male heir. • The ultra-Catholic Guise family also competed for the throne; strongly anti-Bourbon • Fighting began in 1562 between Catholics & Calvinists • Atrocities occurred on both sides
There were two sides: The Huguenots, led by the King of Navarre and Admiral Coligny Vs. The Catholic Guise family
French Nobility takes advantage of this monarchial weakness. • In the second half of 1500’s between 2/5’s and ½ of nobility became Calvinist. • For the upper class religion was an excuse to grab for power.
Powerful Guise Influence The Duke of Guise’s niece, Mary Queen of Scots, marries the young King Francis II.
Huguenot Influence Grows King Charles IX falls under the influence of Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny, and his sister plans to marry another Huguenot leader, Henri of Navarre.
Coligny: Let’s help the Netherlands! This Huguenot leader wants to support the protestants in the Netherlands. But this support would put France on a crash course with Spain.
Coligny survives Catherine convinces Charles that a Huguenot retaliation is imminent
French Catholics Murdering Protestants in Paris • How has the artist made the painting look horrific? • Was the artist a Catholic or a Protestant? Why?
Matters came to a head when Henry, King of Navarre came to Paris to marry Margaret, daughter of Catherine de Medici, and sister to the King (1572)
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • August 24, 1572 • Marriage of Margaret of Valois to Protestant Huguenot Henry of Navarre was intended to reconcile Catholics and Huguenots. • Rioting occurred when the leader of Catholic aristocracy, Henry of Guise, had a leader of the Huguenot party murdered the night before the wedding. • Catherine de Médicis ordered the massacre of Calvinists in response • 20,000 Huguenots were killed • Henry of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived • The massacre initiated the War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons
This occurred on St. Bartholomew’s Day. Mob violence broke out as both sides killed each other Thousands of Huguenots were murdered across France. Hell broke lose as mercenaries were hired to participate in the killing
Catholic League rules Paris • King Henry III tries to destroy the league with a surprise attack but fails in 1588 • Henry III assassinates Henry of Guise
The Guises fought to eliminate Calvinism, but they also fought for control of France. Henry III ordered the assassination of the Duke of Guise
The French Civil War • Catherine started supporting the Bourbons. • Henry of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France. He became the first Bourbon king • Effects of Civil War: • France was left divided by religion • Royal power had weakened • Valois family now replaced by Bourbons CatholicLeague CIVILWAR ProtestantUnion
Henry IV of France • *One of the most important kings in French history • *His rise to power ended the French Civil Wars and placed France on a gradual course towards absolutism • Ended Spanish interference in France • Converted to Catholicism : • Privately remained a Huguenot • Did this to compromise and make peace • Paris is worth a mass. • This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations] • Fighting for the royal inheritance
He entered Paris, supposedly saying “Paris is worth a Mass” • The Catholics were delighted • The Huguenots were horrified • But Henry took the steps necessary to provide state order and end the French religious wars.
He amicably divorced Margarat, and married Marie de Medici. They had several children.
Edict of Nantes • Henry IV passed Edict of Nantes in 1598: • Granted religious rights to Huguenots • Huguenots could practice faith privately but not publically • Did not grant religious freedom for all • Huguenots not allowed to worship at all in Paris and other staunchly Catholic cities. • Gave Huguenots access to universities, to public office, and the right to maintain some 200 fortified towns in west and southwestern France for self-protection. • In reality, the Edict was more like a truce in the religious wars rather than recognition of religious tolerance. • Nevertheless, the Edict gave Huguenots more religious protection than perhaps any other religious minority in Europe.
The Huguenots became less rebellious after the Edict of Nantes And Henry IV FORCED toleration on his country
Over time, Cardinal Richelieu of France gained great influence during the childhood and adulthood of Louis XIII—only dying a year before Louis did. (1642) Richelieu tried to maintain the order of Henry IV—he was the de facto ruler for 32 years
watch • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9lZnbTKHVk