American History Part Two An New Nation Through the Present
Washington Becomes President Main Idea President Washington and other leaders tried to solve the new nation’s economic problems. This led to the rise of political parties.
Organizing the Government • February 1789—Washington was elected president; John Adams became vice president. • Congress created the first executive department: state, treasury, and war. Known as the president’s cabinet. • Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the judicial branch. It had a six-person Supreme Court with one chief justice (John Jay)and five associates. • Federalists: led by Hamilton, wanted a strong central government • Jeffersonian Republicans: led by Jefferson and Madison, wanted a smaller central government, more rural than urban, with powerful states
Settling the Nation’s Debts • Hamilton’s Plan to Pay Debt • Federal government should take on all the debt from the war • Find ways to bring revenue to government • Establish national bank to control credit and make loans to government • New taxes • Tariff of 1789 taxed imported goods • Excise tax, 1791, taxed the production or sale of liquor, sugar, snuff, and carriages • Hamilton compromised with Jefferson and James Madison, who led the opposition to his economic plan. • The capital would be moved to the South by 1800. In return, the southerners would allow Hamilton’s debt bill to pass. • Washington chose the area; Pierre L’Enfant planned the city.
Debating a National Bank • Most controversial part of Hamilton’s plan was the national bank • Two views of the Constitution: • Strict construction: the government should do only what the Constitution specifically states it can do • Loose construction: the government can take reasonable actions that are not outlined in the Constitution—as long as those actions are not specifically prohibited. • Hamilton pointed to the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution when he proposed a national bank. • That was a prime example of loose construction.
Debating a National Bank • Jefferson was only lukewarm to the Constitution in its final form. • He favored a smaller national government. • A strict constructionist, he felt that Hamilton’s interpretation of the “necessary and proper” clause was going beyond the powers that the Constitution specifically allowed. • Jefferson opposed a national bank. • Congress passed the bill, and Washington signed it to charter the first Bank of the United States in February 1791.
Whiskey Rebellion • The excise tax led to a violent clash between supporters and opponents of strong government. • Settlers in the western frontier felt their interests were ignored by the government. • In 1794 farmers on the western Pennsylvania frontier objected to the excise tax on whiskey. Their livelihoods depended on turning surplus grain into rye whiskey. • Uprising known as the Whiskey Rebellion • Farmers attacked tax collectors and burned barns of people who gave away the locations of their whiskey stills. • There was talk of setting up an independent nation. • After the farmers ignored Washington’s orders to stop the rebellion, Washington and Hamilton led a force of some 13,000 or more men into Pennsylvania. The farmers scattered in all directions instead of resisting the militia.
First Political Parties Form • Federalists established local associations, gave political offices and other favors to their supporters. • Jeffersonian Republicans influenced elections in various states by working together. • A two-party system was on its way. • Jeffersonian Republicans became Democratic Republicans.
Challenges of the 1790s Main Idea The United States faced many challenges during the 1790s. It tried to remain neutral in European wars while dealing with conflicts with Native Americans in the Northwest Territory.
President Adams and the XYZ Affair • Presidential election of 1796 • Washington retired after two terms. • Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican candidate. • John Adams was the Federalist candidate. • Though Adams became president, he did not have the full support of the presidential electors. • Because of sectionalism, the southern Federalists preferred his running mate, Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina. • Thomas Jefferson came in second with 68 votes to Adams’s 71 votes. • Jefferson became vice president.
President Adams and the XYZ Affair • Alien Acts: three laws that allowed the president to order foreigners considered to be a threat to national security to be jailed or deported. • Targeted French and Irish refugees, most of whom supported the French • Increased the period of residency required for citizenship from 5 years to 14 • Required foreigners to register with the government • Allowed the president to jail or expel any foreigner thought to be “dangerous to the peace and safety” of the country • The Sedition Actoutlawed any opposition to government policies by actions or by “false, scandalous, or malicious writing.” • Targeted the Democratic-Republicans, who historically supported the French
Jefferson’s Presidency Main Idea The rise of political parties influenced the election of 1800, bringing Thomas Jefferson and a new outlook to the presidency.
The Election of 1800 • This contest marked the first time that power passed from one American political party to another. • Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson against Federalist John Adams • Federalists claimed that • Jefferson was dangerously pro-French. • Jefferson wanted to destroy organized religion because of his interest in science and philosophy. • Democratic-Republicans claimed that • Adams wanted to crown himself king. • The Federalists would try to limit Americans’ rights (using the Alien and Sedition Acts as proof of their claims).
The Election of 1800 • Problems • The election ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr. • Hamilton urged Federalists to vote for Jefferson. On the 36th vote, Jefferson was chosen president. • These problems with the voting system led to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment (1804), which said that electors must cast separate ballots for president and vice president. • Burr held a grudge against Hamilton for supporting Jefferson and for preventing him from winning the governor’s race in New York in later years. In 1804, Burr killed Hamilton in a duel.
Succeeded in reducing government Only customs duties and the sale of lands produced revenue for the government. Reduced the size of the executive department staff Jefferson Makes Changes • Succeeded in reducing size of military • Reduced the size of the army and navy • However, built up navy to help merchant ships when attacked by pirates
The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to try to purchase New Orleans and West Florida. • At the meeting, France offered to sell the United States all of the vast Louisiana Territory. • On April 30, 1803, they signed an agreement with France to buy the land—final price about 80 million francs, or $15 million • Almost doubled the territory of the United States • The Constitution did not directly give Jefferson the authority to buy new territory for the nation. • Jefferson and his fellow strict constructionists decided that the right to acquire territory was implicit in the president’s constitutional power to make treaties.
The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson sent the Corps of Discovery, usually called the Lewis and Clark expedition, to explore the land of the Louisiana Purchase. • Led by Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson’s secretary, and William Clark, an experienced frontiersman • Their ultimate goal was to reach the Pacific Ocean. • They mapped the country and surveyed its natural history, including plants, animals, and landforms. • Were helped by their guide, a Shoshone woman, Sacagawea
The Role of the Supreme Court ChangesMarbury v. Madison • Adams wanted to appoint judges/Madison refused to accept them. • William Marbury, one of the men who did not receive his commission, brought suit in the Supreme Court. • He claimed that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Court the power to force Madison to deliver the commission. • The Court ruled that the Constitution gave the Supreme Court the power to hear only certain kinds of cases. • The Constitution did not give the Court the power to force Madison to deliver Marbury’s commission. • It ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional. • Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, to declare that a law violates the Constitution.
The War of 1812 Main Idea In the early 1800s, Americans unified to face Great Britain in war once again and to battle resistance from Native Americans over attempts to seize their lands.
Violating Neutrality • Unresolved tensions between the United States and Britain, on the northwest frontier and on the seas, caused the nations to war again. • Napoleonic Wars affected American merchant shipping. • France and Britain tried to cut off each other’s access to European ports. • Both nations ignored American neutrality. • The British were more of a threat because they would impress American sailors, forcing them to serve in the British navy.
Violating Neutrality • Congress passed the Embargo Act, which prohibited exports to foreign countries. • This ban was a disaster to the economy. • Goods piled up in warehouses, shops sat in the harbors, people lost their jobs, and businesses failed. • In 1808 James Madison was elected president. • A new law reopened all trade except that with Britain and France.
Tecumseh and the Battle of Tippecanoe • The British tried to rebuild their old alliances with Native Americans. • William Henry Harrison was governor of the new Indiana Territory and carried out Jefferson’s new Native American policy. • Native Americans could choose either to become farmers and join white society or to move west of the Mississippi. • Native Americans made treaties in which they lost millions of acres of tribal lands in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. • Tecumseh • Tecumseh began to unite Native Americans to resist the Native American policy • In 1811, while Tecumseh was away, Harrison’s army attacked. • The Battle of Tippecanoe made Harrison a national hero.
The War of 1812 Begins • The United States declared war on Great Britain in 1812. • The war was fought on land and sea, from Canada to Louisiana. Tecumseh allied with British, • Much of the war fought near the U.S.-Canadian border. • The British staged a massive blockade of the American coast and New Orleans. • Tecumseh was killed in the battle, ending the British-Native American alliance. • Tennessee militia leader Andrew Jackson led a force against the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend where women, children, and warriors were massacred.
The War of 1812 • In August 1814 the British fleet sailed into Chesapeake Bay. • Their soldiers marched to Washington, where they burned several major buildings, including the White House. • Then they bombarded Fort McHenry at Baltimore Harbor. After an overnight battle, the American flag was still flying. The sight inspired Francis Scott Key to write the lyrics to “The Star-Spangled Banner.” • A British force landed near New Orleans in December 1814. • Andrew Jackson and a militia were waiting for them. He became the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. • Treaty of Ghent: peace treaty between the United States and Great Britain, signed in December 1814 in Ghent, Belgium
The Rise of Nationalism • Main Idea • Nationalism contributed to the growth of American culture and influenced domestic and foreign policies.
A New American Culture • American Art and Literature • Before the 1800s, American artists and writers were paid little respect, even by their fellow Americans. • That changed when their work honored American life. • In 1825 the painter Thomas Cole helped establish the Hudson River School, a group of artists whose landscapes both depicted and celebrated the American countryside. • American authors Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant • Proved that Americans could create literature respected in America as well as in Europe • Noah Webster, lexicographer, published An American Dictionary of the English Language • Defined thousands of new words
Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy • As a unique American culture developed, so did a sense of nationalism. • Nationalism replaced the tendency toward sectionalism. • These feelings were soon reflected in government policies. • John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1801–1835) • His court made two key rulings that reflected growing feelings of nationalism and strengthened the national government. • McCulloch v. Maryland: Thiscase pitted the state of Maryland against the national government. In his ruling, Marshall made it clear that national interests were to be put above state interests. • Gibbons v. Ogden: Marshall ruled that national law was superior to state law.
Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy • American foreign policy in the early 1800s also reflected the feelings of nationalism. • In 1816 voters elected James Monroe.During his presidency, the economy grew rapidly, and a spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed—”Era of Good Feelings.” • Monroe Doctrine • American lawmakers wanted to deter any foreign country from taking lands in the Americas that the United States might someday claim. • President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams declared a new policy, known as the Monroe Doctrine. • It declared the Americas off limits to European colonization.
There were 22 states in the Union in 1819. In half of the states—the “slave states” of the South—slavery was legal. In half of the states—the “free states” of the North—slavery was illegal. This exact balance between slave states and free states gave them equal representation in the U.S. Senate. If Missouri were admitted as a slave state, the balance would be upset. The Missouri Compromise • Missouri Compromise of 1820: agreement under which Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine was to be admitted as a free state • The agreement also banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory. • The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between slave and free states.
The Age of Jackson Main Idea President Andrew Jackson’s bold actions defined a period of American history.
Path to the Presidency • Andrew Jackson • Served in the War of 1812, nicknamed “Old Hickory” • Was given command of military operations in the South • Led the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans • Became nationally famous as the “Hero of New Orleans” • In 1824 he ran for president and won the popular vote, but not a majority of the electoral votes. • John Quincy Adams won the House of Representatives’ vote and became president. • Jackson created a new political party that became the Democratic Party. • Adams and his supporters became the National Republicans. • Jackson was a popular war hero—“a man of the people.” • In the 1820s voting restrictions in many stateswere being lifted, allowing poor people to become voters.
Path to the Presidency • Election of 1828 • These ordinary, working Americans were strong Jackson supporters. He easily defeated the unpopular President Adams. • Such political power exercised by ordinary Americans became known as Jacksonian Democracy. • Spoils system: rewarding supporters by giving them positions in the government.
The Indian Removal Act • Many white Americans viewed Native Americans as inferior. • Farmland was becoming scarce in the East, and white settlers wanted the Indians’ lands. • Indian Removal Act (1830): called for the relocation of the five nations to an area west of the Mississippi River called Indian Territory, now present-day Oklahoma. • The U.S. Army marched the Choctaw, the Creek, and the Chickasaw west, hundreds of miles, to Indian Territory. • Many died on the long trek. • The Trail of Tears • The Cherokee fought their removal in the American court system. They sued the federal government, claiming that they had the right to be respected as a foreign country. • The Supreme Court in 1831 ruled against the Cherokee. • The Cherokee were herded by the U.S. Army on a long and deadly march west. • Of the 18,000 Cherokee forced to leave their homes, about 4,500 died on the march, which became known as the Trail of Tears.
Conflict over States’ Rights • In 1828 Congress raised the tariff on British manufactured goods. • The tariff was welcomed by industry in the northern states because it increased the price of British goods and encouraged Americans to buy American goods. • The agricultural southern states despised the tax. It forced southerners to buy northern goods instead of the less expensive British goods. • Southern cotton growers, who exported most of their crop to Britain, opposed interference with international trade. • The concept that states have the right to reject federal laws is called the nullification theory.
The issue of nullification and states’ rights was the focus of one of the most famous debates in Senate history in 1830. Nullification Crisis When Congress passed another tariff in 1832, South Carolina declared the tariff law “null and void” and threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government tried to enforce the tariff. Conflict Over States’ Rights • Jackson received the Force Bill from Congress, but South Carolina declared the Force Bill null and void as well. • Compromise worked out by Henry Clay • Tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years. • Issues of nullification and of states’ rights would be raised again.
The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution was the birth of modern industry and the social changes that accompanied it. • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain’s textile industry. • British inventors created machines that used power from running water and steam engines to spin and weave cloth. • In 1793 first water-powered spinning mill built in Rhode Island. Marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States. • The Industrial Revolution spread rapidly throughout New England.
The North Industrializes • The Revolution Spreads • Throughout the early and mid-1800s, industrialization spread slowly from the textile industry to other industries in the North. • In the 1830s steam engines became better and more widely available. • Their power helped make industry the fastest-growing part of the U.S. economy.
The North Industrializes • Industrialization in the North led to urbanization. • People left the farm and moved to cities where they could work in the mills and factories. • In 1820 only 7 percent of Americans lived in cities. • Within 30 years, that percentage more than doubled. • Within a few decades, the North evolved from a region of small towns and farms into one including large cities and factories.
Transportation and Communication Businesses needed ways to transport raw materials to their growing number of factories and mills and to ship their finished goods to market. • Roads • In 1811 construction began on the National Road. • It was completed in 1841. • Stretched 800 miles westfrom Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois • Most roads were much shorter and crudely made. • By 1840 a network of roads connected most of the cities and towns throughout the United States, promoting travel and trade.
Transportation and Communication • Canals • In 1825 the 363-mile-long Erie Canal opened, connecting the Great Lakes with the Hudson River—and with the Atlantic Ocean. • The canal provided a quick and economical way to ship manufactured goods to the West and farm products to the East. • Within 15 years after the success of the Erie Canal, more than 3,000 miles of canals formed a dense network in the northeast.
Transportation and Communication • The Steamboat • The first successful steamboat service was run by Robert Fulton on the Hudson River with his boat, the Clermont. • Within a decade, dozens of steamboats were puffing up and down the Ohio, the Mississippi, and other rivers. • The Railroad • The first steam-powered train ran in the United States and made its first trip in 1830. • By 1840 there were about 3,000 miles of track in the country. • The speed, power, reliability, and carrying capacity of the railroad quickly made it a preferred means of travel and transport.
Transportation and Communication • Printing press • Steam-powered pressesenabled publishers to print material much faster and in much greater volume than ever before. • Postal service • With the growing use of steamboats and the railroad, mail delivery was faster and more widely available. • The telegraph • Considered thegreatest advancement in communication • Samuel F. B. Morse patented the first practical telegraph in 1840. • Communication by telegraph was instantaneous. • Newspapers, railroads, and other businesses were quick to grasp its advantages.