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Part Two

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Part Two

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  1. Part Two Ethical Theory

  2. introduction • Moral Theory • Assessment of Ethical Theories • Moral Theories and Real People • Use

  3. Assumptions • Introduction • Prescriptivity • Universalizability • Overridingness • Public • Practicality

  4. Virtue theory • Introduction • Defined • Proponents • Appeal

  5. Confucius • Background • Life • Rituals and Values • The Analects • Impact

  6. Analects of Confucius • The Virtues • Respect for Authority • Master Tseng’s Three Points of Examination • A Young Man’s Duty • Four Virtues • How to Act • Nine Cares of the Gentleman • Goodness • Good & Goodness • Wealth & Goodness • Goodness & Happiness • Moral Force

  7. Confucius’ Doctrine of the mean • Equilibrium & Harmony • Equilibrium • Perfection • The Mean • Virtue • Why the path of the mean is not walked • Why the path of the mean is not understood • Shun’s Wisdom • Hui • Virtues • Virtues • The Path

  8. Doctrine of the mean • Duties & Virtues • Five Duties of Universal Obligation • The Virtues by Which the Five Duties are Practiced • Acquiring Knowledge of Duties • Sincerity • What is Sincerity? • Attaining Sincerity • Intelligence & Sincerity • One who possesses sincerity • Sincerity & Completion

  9. Doctrine of the mean • The Superior Man • The Superior Man & The Mean • The Superior Man • Archer Analogy • Energy of the Southern Regions • Energy of the Northern Regions • The Superior Man

  10. Aristotle • History • Athens & Macedonia • Aristotle • Ethics • Nicomachean Ethics • Nature of Ethics • Intellectual Virtue & Moral Virtue • Intellectual Virtue

  11. Aristotle’s metaphysics • Causes & Teleology • Four Types of Causes • Teleology

  12. Aristotle’s virtue theory • The Supreme Good • End • Regress-Reductio Argument • Knowledge of the Good • Happiness & Lives • Happiness • The Three Main Types of Life • Life of Pleasure • Life of Pleasure • Pleasure is not Happiness

  13. Aristotle’s virtue theory • Life of Honor • The Life of Honor • Honor is not the Good • Goodness/Justice rather than honor? • What is the Good for Man? • Wealth & The Good • Inadequate • What is the good for man?

  14. Aristotle’s Virtue theory • The Good • Second Argument for the Good • The Final End • Choice Argument for happiness as the final end • Self Sufficiency Argument for happiness as the final end • Most Desirable Argument for happiness • The Function of Man • Argument for function • Life is not Man’s Function • The Function is found in the rational part • Function & Good

  15. Aristotle’s virtue theory • How is Happiness Acquired? • How? • Divine Dispensation • Study & Training • Teleological Argument Against Chance • Happiness • Political Science & Virtue • Excellence & Virtue • Excellence • Virtue • The Mark of Virtue • Actions • The mean

  16. Aristotle’s virtue theory • The Doctrine of the Mean Applied • Particulars • More Particulars • Summing Up & Three Rules • Virtue • Difficult to be Good • Practical Rule #1: Keeping away from the contrary extreme • Practical Rule #2: Likely errors • Practical Rule #3: Pleasure • Hitting the Mean • Rule

  17. Religion & ethics • Basis of Morality • Ethics & God • Introduction • Divine Command Theory • Autonomy Thesis • Kant • Secular Ethics • Intellectualism & Voluntarism • Introduction • Voluntarism • Intellectualism

  18. St. Thomas Aquinas • Background • Early Life • The Ox • Works • Teleological Ethics • Nicomachean Ethics • Actions • Humans Actions vs. Acts of Humans • Factors of Moral Assessment • Christian Modification

  19. St. thomasaquinas • Natural Law • Natural Law • Natural Morality • Disagreement • The Four Laws • Metaphysics • Eternal Law • Natural Law • Divine Law • Human Law

  20. St. Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica • Whether there is an Eternal Law? • Law • Eternal Law & Natural Law • Whether an Effect of Law is to Make Men Good? • Law & Virtue • Goodness & The State • Tyrannical Law

  21. St. Thomas AquinasSumma Theolgica • Whether the Natural Law Contains Several Precepts or Only One • Natural Law is Self Evident • Principle of Practical Reason • Good & Evil • Inclination to Good • Whether the Natural Law is the Same in All Men? • Same

  22. Divine command theory • Definition of Divine Command Theory • Defined • Characteristics • Appeal

  23. John dun scotus • Background • Life • Dunsmen • Will, Intellect & Morality • The Will & Intellect • Scotus’s Argument for the Will • Voluntarism & Morality • Voluntarism & God • Argument for Voluntarism • Love of God • The Ten Commandments

  24. Divine command theoryThe bible • Morality • The Ten Commandments • Killing • Injury • Loans, Thefts, & Losses • Virgins • More Death • Treatment of Aliens, Widows & Orphans

  25. Problems with divine command theory • Problems • Euthyphro Problem • Different Religions, Texts, Interpretations • Metaphysics • God’s Goodness • Arbitrariness

  26. Concerns about divine command theory • Concerns • Moral Intuitions & Actual Moral Practices • Selective Approach • Religious People have done Evil Things

  27. Consequentialism • Introduction • Defined • Value • Relevant Beings • Appeal

  28. ConsequentialismEthical egoism • Introduction • Ethical Egoism • Altruism & Egoism • Appeal of Egoism • Varieties of Egoism • Psychological Egoism • Personal Egoism • Egotism • Ethical Egoism

  29. ConsequentialismEthical egoism • Standard Arguments for Ethical Egoism • Adam Smith Style Argument • Ayn Rand • Response to Rand • Thomas Hobbes

  30. Ethical egoismThomas Hobbes • Background • Personal Information • The English Civil War • Leviathan (1642) • Physics • Goal & Method • Empiricism • Metaphysical Materialism • God • Ontology • Ethics • Morality & Materialism

  31. Thomas hobbesleviathan • Of the Natural Condition of Mankind • Equality • Value • Three Causes of Quarrel • War • War & Justice • The Passions that Incline Men to Peace • Articles of Peace

  32. Thomas hobbesLeviathan • Of the First & Second Natural Laws, & of Contracts • The Right of Nature (jus naturale) • Law of Natuire (lexnaturalis) • Right & Law • Fundamental Law of Nature • The Second Law of Nature • Of Other Laws of Nature • Third Law of Nature: Justice • Justice & Injustice

  33. Thomas hobbesLeviathan • Moral Philosophy • Moral Philosophy • Good & Evil • Moral Philosophy

  34. Problems with ethical egoism • Inconsistency • The Argument • Reply • The Ironic Argument • Argument • Reply • The Paradox Argument • Argument • Responses

  35. Consequentialismutilitarianism • Introduction • Defined • Utility • Relevant Beings • Act & Rule Utilitarianism • Proponents • Appeal • Costs & Benefits • Democracy • Moral Intuitions

  36. John stuart mill • Background • Background • Education • Life • Works

  37. John stuart millutilitarianism • What Utilitarianism Is • Foundation of Morals • Ends • The Pig Objection • The Objection • Mill’s Reply • Difference in quality of pleasures • Basis of the difference in quality of pleasures • Preference • Higher Faculties • Happiness & Contentment • Objection • Competent Judges

  38. John stuart millutilitarianism • Standard, End & Scope • Standard • End & Scope • Proof of the Principle of Utility • Questions of Ultimate Ends • The Analogy • All Possible Proof

  39. John stuart millutilitarianism • Objection • People desire things other than happiness • Virtue & Happiness • Love of Money • Love of Power & Fame • Virtue contrasted with love of money, power or fame • Happiness • Proof of the Principle of Utlity

  40. Problems with utilitarianism • Internal Problems • Formulation • Consequences • Response • External Problems • Unreasonable Expectations • The Rights of Minorities • Nothing is Forbidden • Absurd Implications • Integrity

  41. deontology • Introduction • Defined • Rule-Deontological Theories • Defined • Rules • Proponents • Appeal

  42. Kantian Ethicsintroduction • Introduction • Theoretical Reason • Practical Reason • Ethical Works • Emphasis • Rationalism

  43. Categorical imperativeImmanuel Kant • The Good Will • The Good Will & Qualities • Worthiness of Happiness • Virtues • The Goodness of the Good Will • Moral Worth, Maxim & Universal Law • Moral Worth • The Good • Law • Example • Determining the Good • Duty

  44. Categorical imperativeImmanuel kant • The Categorical Imperative • Law & Will • Imperatives • Examples • Suicide • Lying Promises • Rusting Talents • Helping Others

  45. Categorical imperativeImmanuel kant • Ends • Rational Beings • Objects of the Inclination • Rational Beings • Supreme Practical Principle • Kingdom of Ends • Rational Beings as Legislators • Three Postulates of Morality • Introduction • Freedom • Immortality • God

  46. Problems withdeontology • Problems • Duty • Inflexibility • Rationality • Terrible Maxims seem to pass the test • Kingdom of Ends

  47. Ethical relativism & subjectivism • Introduction • Defined • Proponents • Pojman’s Reconstruction of the argument • Subjectivism • Appeal • Appeal • Melville Herskovits’ Tolerance Argument

  48. Herodotuscustom is king • Background • Life (484-425 bc) • Works • Contribution • Relativism • The Best • Anecdote of Darius

  49. Problems withethical relativism • Problems • Relativism refutes the tolerance argument • Relativism precludes cross cultural criticism • Disturbing Consequences • Defining Culture • Relativism collapses into Subjectivism • Subjectivism collapses into Nihilism • Criticism of the Argument • Diversity Thesis • Dependency Thesis