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LEC: Energy Transformations in Living Organisms: Cellular Respiration. Unit 3: Energy Transformations Chapter 9, Sections 1 & 2 (Pages 220-232). Review: Producers. Producers get their energy from the sun. Producers convert this light energy into stored chemical energy (glucose ).

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lec energy transformations in living organisms cellular respiration

LEC: Energy Transformations in Living Organisms: Cellular Respiration

Unit 3: Energy Transformations

Chapter 9, Sections 1 & 2 (Pages 220-232)

review producers
Review: Producers
  • Producers get their energy from the sun.
  • Producers convert this light energy into stored chemical energy (glucose).
  • This process is called photosynthesis.
review consumers
Review: Consumers
  • Consumers get their energy from the producers.
  • Consumers convert stored chemical energy (glucose) into usablechemical energy (ATP).
  • This process is called cellular respiration.
cellular respiration aerobic
Cellular Respiration (aerobic)
  • Cellular respiration is the process by which glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to release energy for making ATP, another form of chemical energy.
aerobic respiration equation

carbon

dioxide

water

food

(glucose, a carbohydrate)

Aerobic Respiration – Equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP

oxygen

Does this look familiar?

biotheme interdependence

Photosynthesis:

6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (sun) → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

BioTheme: Interdependence!

Aerobic Cellular Respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (ATP)

why atp an analogy to money
Why ATP? An analogy to money…
  • Glucose in our food is a great source of energy! ($100 bill)
  • However, individual cell processes may only require a small amount of energy ($1 bill)
  • Analogy: most vending machines do not accept $100 bills! We need a smaller form of “currency” for these processes.
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is this important cellular “currency” for life.
  • ATP releases more appropriate amounts of energy for the individual cellular processes that require energy.

(We will study this molecule in detail in our next activity!)

the big question is
The BIG Question is…

Do only animals respire?

Or do plants respire too?

  • Only plants perform photosynthesis
  • Plants AND animals perform cellular respiration!

(Can you explain why??)

site of cellular respiration
Site of Cellular Respiration
  • Plant and animal cells contain mitochondria: cell structures that transform chemical energy from glucose to ATP.
significant atp production
Significant ATP Production
  • Aerobic cellular respiration releases energy SLOWLY, using oxygen to convert ONEmolecule of glucose to 36 ATP!
cellular respiration an aerobic
Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)
  • What happens when cells don’t have enough oxygen?
  • Some organisms live in an oxygen-free environment. How do they get their energy?
cellular respiration an aerobic1
Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)
  • Anaerobic respiration is also called fermentation, or the process by which energy is released from glucose when oxygen is NOT available.
  • This process allows organisms to continue to produce energy until oxygen is available.
  • However, this process only releases 2 ATP per molecule of glucose.
alcoholic fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Anaerobic way of converting energy for yeast and other microorganisms
  • Glucose broken down to produce alcohol, CO2 and energy (ATP)
  • C6H12O6 ethanol + CO2 + 2 ATP
  • EX: baking bread with yeast

fermenting wine & beer

fermentation bread
Fermentation - Bread
  • Source of sugar?
  • DOUGH! (sugar and/or flour)
  • Yeast use up the O2 and ferment sugar
  • Produce CO2, which is trapped within

tiny bubbles & results in the dough rising

  • Produce ethanol, which evaporates in the baking process
fermentation wine
Fermentation - Wine
  • Source of sugar?
  • GRAPES!
  • Yeast use up the O2 and ferment sugar
  • Produce CO2 (kept only in champagne)
  • Produce ethanol (% alcohol varies based on sugar content of grapes and # of fermentations)
fermentation beer
Fermentation - Beer
  • Source of sugar?
  • BARLEY!
  • Yeast use up the O2 and ferment sugar
  • Hops are added as a preservative

and for added flavor

  • Produce CO2 and ethanol also
  • Various carbohydrates can be used to make alcohol – including wheat, rice, and potatoes!
other side effects of fermentation
Other side effects of fermentation?!
  • “Drunken Swedish moose drowns after fermented apple binge”

http://www.usatoday.com/news/offbeat/2006-11-24-moose_x.htm

  • “Drunk Moose Invade Seniors Home”

http://www.wtopnews.com/index.php?nid=456&sid=620430

lactic acid fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Anaerobic way of converting energy in animal cells and some microorganisms
  • Glucose broken down to produce lactic acid, CO2 and energy (ATP)
  • C6H12O6 lactic acid + CO2 + 2 ATP
  • EX: muscle cells during strenuous exercise

fermenting cheese, yogurt, sour cream

strenuous exercise
Strenuous Exercise
  • Lactic acid is produced by your muscle cells during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough O2 to tissues.
  • Without enough O2, the body is NOT able to produce all of the ATP that is required.
  • The buildup of lactic acid can cause painful burning in your muscles!
minimal atp production
Minimal ATP Production
  • In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic respiration only releases 2 ATP for each molecule of glucose broken down.
comparing atp production
Comparing ATP Production
  • First, your body breaks down glucose through aerobic respiration to produce 36 ATP per glucose molecule; however, this is a slow process.
  • When muscle cells cannot get enough O2 they break down glucose through lactic acid fermentation to produce 2 ATP per glucose…
  • Therefore, AEROBIC RESPIRATION is much more efficient in terms of ATP production – 36 ATP compared to 2 ATP!
aerobic training
Aerobic Training
  • Ex: long runs, biking, swimming
  • Can increase the size and number of mitochondria in muscle cells
  • Can increase the delivery of O2 to muscles by improving the heart and lungs
anaerobic training
Anaerobic Training
  • Ex: sprints, strides,

quick bursts of energy

  • Increase the glycogen levels in the muscles
  • Increase body’s tolerance to lactic acid