Assessment of the respiratory system. Prepare by: Mrs. Mahdia Samaha Alkony. 1. Health History. The reason for seeking advice: dyspnea, hemoptysis, odema, cough, general fatigue, weakness. Chief complain , onset , duration, severity Assess risk factors
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Prepare by: Mrs. Mahdia Samaha Alkony
Sudden dyspnea in healthy person indicates:
2.Orthopnea: inability to breath easily except in an upright position.
Found in pt. with COPD, heart disease.
3.Cough: caused byirritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract that may arise from an infectious process, irritant as smoke, dust…
It’s a protective mechanism against accumulation of secretion in the bronchi & bronchioles.
4- Sputum production:
Chest pain may be sharp stabbing & intermittent or dull, aching & persistant:
Causes of chest pain:
6- Wheezing: Is a major finding in pt. with bronchoconstriction or airway narrowing.
Wheezing is a high pitched, musical sound heard mainly on expiration.
Relived by: Oral or inhaled bronchodilator.
7- Clubbing of the fingers: is a sign of chronic hypoxic condition, chronic lung infections, CA of lung.
7- Hemoptysis: Is symptom of both pulmonary & cardiac disorders.
9- Cyanosis: Is a bluish coloring of skin, very late indicator of hypoxia.
Normal O2 sat. is 95-100%, decrease 85 indicate that tissue are not receiving enough o2.
1-Chest x-ray: normal pulmonary tissue is radiolucent, there for densties produced by fluid, tumors, foreign bodies & pathogenic condition can be detected by x-ray.
2-CT : used to identify pulmonary nodules & small tumors that are not visible on routine chest x-ray.
3-MRI :are more diagnostic image than CT to characterized pulmonary nodules.
4-Fluoroscopic studies: used to detect diaphragm paralysis & lung masses.
5-Pulmonary angiography: used to investigate thromboembolic disease of the lung as congenital abnormalities of pulmonary vascular tree.
6-Radioisotope (lung scan).Ventilation- perfusion lung scan to measure the integrity of pulmonary vessels to evaluate blood flow abnormalities as seen in pulmonary emboli.
Bronchoscopy is direct inspection & examination of the larynx, trachea, & bronchi through either a flexible fiberoptic scope or rigid bronchoscope.
Therapeutic bronchoscopy :