CHAPTER 5 Human Geography Section 1: Population Geography Section 2: Cultural Geography Section 3: World Languages and Religions
Section 1Population Geography Objectives: • How do geographers study population? • What are some important trends in world population?
Section 1Population Geography Studying population: • Geographers study relationships between populations and environments, using: • maps • graphs • population pyramids • spatial perspective • Key statistics: • population density • population distribution • population change • natural increase
Section 1Population Geography World population trends: • World population is increasing rapidly. • Economic development results in lower population growth rates. • Many less-developed nations are gradually reducing population growth. • Future population projections vary, but population-related challenges are inevitable.
Section 2CulturalGeography Objectives: • How do geographers study culture? • How do cultures change over time?
Section 2CulturalGeography Studying culture: • culture traits—activities and behaviors common to groups of people • culture regions—areas in which people share culture traits
Section 2CulturalGeography How cultures change • Cultures change through general processes such as migration, war, and trade. • Key concepts: • innovation—adoption of new and useful ideas • diffusion—spread of ideas • globalization—worldwide adoption of culture traits • traditionalism—maintenance of traditional practices
Section 3World Languagesand Religions Objectives: • What is the geography of the world’s languages? • What are the three main types of religions that geographers identify?
Section 3World Languagesand Religions Geography of languages: • Languages have spatial characteristics, linked to specific regions and peoples. • Languages are divided into families and branches. • Geographers study the origins and spread of languages.
Section 3World Languagesand Religions Types of religions: • ethnic—focus on one ethnic group; examples: Hinduism, Judaism • animist—focus on spirits and forces of nature; often have ethnic basis • universalizing—seek worldwide following; examples: Islam, Christianity