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Playful Tray : Adopting Ubicomp and Persuasive Techniques into Play-based Occupational Therapy for Correcting Eating Behaviors in Young Children. Presenter :: Dori Tung- yun Lin Jin-Ling Lo, Tung- yun Lin, Jen- hao Chen, Hsi -Chin Chou, Hao-hua Chu, Jane Hsu National Taiwan University.

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slide1

Playful Tray :

Adopting Ubicomp and Persuasive Techniques into Play-based Occupational Therapy for Correcting Eating Behaviors in Young Children

Presenter :: Dori Tung-yun Lin

Jin-Ling Lo, Tung-yun Lin, Jen-hao Chen, Hsi-Chin Chou, Hao-hua Chu, Jane Hsu

National Taiwan University

slide2

Ubiquitous

Computing

integrates computing into everyday objects and activities

slide3

Lost ?

http://www.mtnsys.com/Imags/frmain1.jpg

Object location tracker

- Shin-jan Wu, NTU Ubicomp Lab

slide4

Smart

Environment

slide5

Dumb users?

Smarter users

slide6

Persuasive

Computing

Smart people.

Smart homes?

slide7

Baby think it over

Tooth Tunes

Textrix VR Bike

Related Works

Persuasive Mirror

slide8

Persuasive Computing

from a Computing Perspective

not only

sensing and tracking behaviors

but also

engaging people to change behaviors

slide9

Persuasive Computing

from an Occupational Therapist Perspective

extending therapists’ reach from

treatment clinic

into

the actual living environment

slide10

the problem…

Mealtime Behavior

slide11

Nutritional concerns

  • Affect the participation of children in daily routines
  • Negative parent-child interaction

Mealtime Behavior

slide12

Traditionally,

  • eating behavior interventions
  • depend heavily on parents.
        • non-compliance of mealtime related parenting skills
        • emotion
slide13

Play-based Feeding Behavior Intervention

“ Play is a child’s way of learning and

an outlet for his innate need of activity. ”

-- N. Alessandrini, “A. Play—A child’s world”

slide14

`

Habitual behavior

Partial reinforcement

Active engagement

Three primary elements of play

Playfulness

Intrinsic motivation

Internalcontrol

Suspension of reality

Play-based Feeding Behavior Intervention

slide15

`

Habitual behavior

Playful Tray

Design Considerations (1/4)

Partial reinforcement

  • Attention
  • to split between game playing and eating activities

Attention

Active engagement

Playfulness

Intrinsic motivation

Internalcontrol

Suspension of reality

slide16

`

Habitual behavior

Playful Tray

Design Considerations (2/4)

Partial reinforcement

  • Enjoyment
  • two kinds of enjoyment: perceptual arousal / accomplishment

Enjoyment

Active engagement

Playfulness

Intrinsic motivation

Internalcontrol

Suspension of reality

slide17

`

Habitual behavior

Playful Tray

Design Considerations (3/4)

Partial reinforcement

  • Engagement
  • to connect digital playfulness to active participation in the target physical activity

Engagement

Active engagement

Playfulness

Intrinsic motivation

Internalcontrol

Suspension of reality

slide18

`

Habitual behavior

Playful Tray

Design Considerations (4/4)

Partial reinforcement

  • Control
  • to give children choices in determining game outcome

Control

Active engagement

Playfulness

Intrinsic motivation

Internalcontrol

Suspension of reality

slide20

[ Implementation 1]

Coloring Game

slide21

[ Implementation 1]

Coloring Game

─ Four Problems

  • frustration

when the cartoon character did not look colorful and happy at the end of the game

  • boring (decrease of enjoyment)

attractive at the first few times, then became boring for the color mappings never changed

  • disengagement

grabbed too much attention that some children became distracted from eating properly

  • gobbling (wrong attention target)

Some children became impatient to see their favorite cartoon characters fully colored

slide22

Palm-top PC with touch screen

For placing the bowl

Weight sensor and sensing surface

[ Implementation 2]

Racing Game

slide23

[ Implementation 2]

Racing Game

Digital Playful Feedback

LCD Display

Racing Game

Eating Events

Weighing Sensing Surface

Weight Change Detector

Physical Eating Action

slide24

[ Implementation 2]

Racing Game

Choose one favorite character and start to dine

One randomly chosen character would run forward with every bite of food

The racing game can proceed if and only if one eats

At the end of dining, the character in the front wins the game

slide25

[ Implementation 2]

Racing Game

  • Control (choose the favorite character)
  • Enjoyment (vision / accomplishment)
slide26

[ Implementation 2]

Racing Game

  • Engagement (Eating events as inputs)
  • Attention (low interactivity?)
slide27

User Study

  • Done by professional occupational therapist. (Prof. Lo and her student)
  • 4 children aged from 4 to 7 years old.
    • A – 7 yrs old, Asperger’s Syndrome
    • B – 5 yrs old, High function autism
    • C – 5 yrs old, Asperger’s Syndrome
    • D – 4 yrs old, No specific diagnosis
  • Long meals
    • ranging from over 30 min. to over 1 hr.
slide28

User Study

Procedures

  • Children’s Mealtime Behavior Checklist
  • Interview - to clarify behavioral details
  • Record eating activities without the tray
  • Record eating activities with the tray within 1 week
slide29

Evaluation

Behavior Coding System

  • Use the taped video to identify positive and negative behaviors
  • active feeding / interaction / social behavior
  • The P/N ratio is used to measure behavioral improvement
slide32

Results

Mealtime duration with and without the playful tray for the four children subjects

Avg.: 32min.(23-41min.)

Avg.: 21min.(7-29 min.)

slide33

Results

The child’s P/N ratio with and without the Playful Tray

0.80~13.33

6.95~19.00

different food types (rice/ dumpling→easy to eat → less self-feeding actions) ↑

slide34

Results

The mother’s P/N ratio with and without the playful tray

0.79~ 4.00

4.30~30.00

slide35

Conclusion

  • Utilizing Ubicomp and persuasive technology extends the reach of occupational therapists from their treatment clinic into the actual living environment of a patient.
  • The Playful Tray can effectively improve child meal completion time by 35%.
  • The Playful Tray can also make change of parent behaviors.
slide36

Limitations

  • Lack pre-interview process
    • Identify the real needs of real users
    • Only informally talked to a parent and some young children
  • Lack long-term user studies evaluation
    • -
slide37

Future Work

  • Long-term user study.
  • Understand users’ real needs.
    • Focus group or 1-on-1 interview
    • Observe weight changes through dining to improve the eating behavior recognition.
slide38

Output

Game

Input

Future Work

Any Other

Games!!

Racing

Game

Animated

Simulation

Camera

(teeth brushing)

Weighing Sensor

(eating event)

RFID Reader

(toys’ location)

slide39

Output

Game

Input

Accomplish smarter users via smart environment.

slide40

Publications

  • Jin-ling Lo, Tung-yun Lin, Jen-hao Chen, Hsi-Chin Chou, Hao-hua Chu, Jane Hsu, Playful tray: adopting Ubicomp and Persuasive Techniques into Play-based Occupational Therapy for Correcting Poor Eating Behaviors in Young Children, Pending for International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (ACM UBICOMP) 2007
  • Tung-yun Lin, Keng-hao Chang, Shih-yen Liu, Hao-hua Chu, A Persuasive Game to Encourage Healthy Dietary Behaviors of Young Children, Demo Paper & Adjunct Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (ACM UbiComp 2006), California, September, 2006.
  • Keng-hao Chang, Shih-yen Liu, Hao-hua Chu, Jane Hsu, Cheryl Chen, Tung-yun Lin, Chieh-yu Chen, Polly Huang, Diet-Aware Dining Table: Observing Dietary Behaviors over Tabletop Surface, in Proceedings of the International conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2006), Dublin Ireland, May 2006, (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3968, Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference, PERVASIVE 2006, Springer), pages 366-382.
  • Chon-in Wu, Chao-ming (James) Teng, Yi-chao Chen, Tung-yun Lin, Hao-hua Chu, Jane Yun-jen Hsu, Point-of-Capture Archiving and Editing of Personal Experiences from a Mobile Device, to appear in ACM/Springer Journal of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (PUC), Special Issue on Memory and Sharing of Experiences, 2006.