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  1. “Change” A History of the Political Parties of the United States from 1791 to 1961 By: Matt Leung Celso Leite

  2. Thesis • Since their inception, both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party of the United States have undergone significant ideological shifts on the left-right spectrum from 1840 to the 1960. • Whereas an ideology that is center-left is defined as an ideology, which supports the use of governmental regulation to achieve social justice and whereas an ideology that is center-right is an ideology, which supports tradition and free enterprise.

  3. Washington’s Warning • In his farewell address in 1791, Washington warned of the dangers of political parties • Believed that parties would split the Union and create other political loyalties • Removal of political parties could allow people to remain more loyal to the community, state, and nation • Recognized their ability to protect against monarchy • Could distract government from duties because of various jealousies Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  4. Formation of the Democratic Party • Party evolved from the opposition of fiscal policies of Alexander Hamilton • Built off of the failing Democratic-Republican Party • Ideologically began with the founding of the Democratic-Republican Party in 1791 • Officially began with Andrew Jackson’s nomination for Democratic presidential candidate for the election of 1832 • Democratic-Republican Party did NOT split into the Democratic Party and Republican Party • First Mass party • Small government • Andrew Jackson was the first Democratic Party president Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  5. Early Democratic Party • Jacksonian Democrats • Ideology revolved around speaking for the common man and watching out for their interests • Party represented those that were not wealthy planters, merchants, and lawyers • Protection of common man and his liberties • Suspicious of elitism • Faith placed in masses for governmental responsibility and power • Suffrage to more men Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  6. Early Democratic Party • Did not mind a strong executive • Jacksonian era Democrats were dominated by Jackson during his presidency and gave him little opposition • Against central financial institution (Bank of the United States) • Policy against the “aristocratic banks” • Small government = good • No religion in politics • Appealed to immigrants Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  7. Immediate Pre-Civil War Democrats • Divided on certain issues from sectionalism • Northern Democrats • Remained firm on a few ideologies • Supported immigrants • Support for immigrants led to the death of the Whig Party and had a part in creating the Republican Party • SECTIONALISM • STATES RIGHTS • By 1860, the party was nearly fully divided with the majority in the Southern Democrats • States Rights led to Civil War Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  8. Formation of the Republican Party • Ideology • Party evolved from Whig policy and adoption of Freesoiler ideals • Began with the combination of the Whig Party and a faction of the Democratic Party • Ideologically formed as “Republicans” on March 20, 1854 • Officially began with John C Frémont’s nomination for Republican presidential candidate for the election of 1856 • Economic policy formed off of existing Whig policy • Protectionism • Protestant values • Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican Party president Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  9. Reconstruction Era Democrats • Party mostly destroyed by direct administration by federal military governments • Focus on rebuilding shattered party rather than promoting a single, unified ideology • Drew in resentful white Southerners • Resentment channeled toward freed blacks • Party became one that held three main ideas, the South, segregation and White Supremacism • Johnson issued policies that promoted segregation and supported South • Amnesty • Led to rebuilding antebellum government and black codes Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  10. Reconstruction Republican Party • At founding, it was a pro-business, pro-bank, pro-tariff, and pro-gold standard • Radical Republicans grew at the end of the Civil War for more progressive measures during Reconstruction moving to the center left • Attempted to gain votes from carpetbaggers, Freedmen, and Scalawags • Grew extremely large in size from popularity • Appealed to nearly all social statuses • Larger size made factional splits inevitable Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  11. Reconstruction Republican Party • The large party was threatened to break by the contrary opinions of different factions • Corruption during the Grant Presidency by his Cabinet and others hastened the process • Whiskey Ring – hypocrisy • During this time, multiple founders of the Republican Party decided to shift to a further center-left standpoint • Civil Rights became a volatile issue • Supported increased Civil Rights • Freedmen’s Bureau • Large splits and divisions leading up to and during the Gilded Age Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  12. Gilded Age Democrats • Two distinctive ideologies • Bourbon Democrats • Backed Grover Cleveland • Returned to Jackson’s idea of a “hands off” policy • Progressive Democrats • End of the Gilded Age • Dominated the party during the beginning of the 20th century Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  13. Gilded Age Republican Party • 3 major factions – split over business and Civil Rights • Stalwarts – Defended Spoils System • Half-breeds – Wanted reform of Civil Service • Mugawumps – Completely rejected Spoils System • During the Gilded Age, Northern business boomed • Republicans tended to support big business ventures, including the Gold Standard and high tariffs • Additionally supported pensions for war veterans Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  14. Progressive Era Republican Party • Agreed to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and Interstate Commerce Commission • Hurt by the high McKinley Tariff • Supported Prohibition • Clearly defined religious background • Won the 1894 election in the biggest landslide in history, after Democrats were blamed for the Depression of 1893 Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  15. Progressive Era Republican Party • Environmental issues led to passing of Newlands Reclamation Bill • Began the Square Deal • “Trust busting” • 43 actions by the time TR left office • 99 prosecutions by the time Taft left office • Input in labor disputes • Assisted with anthracite coal strike Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  16. Progressive Era Republican Party • Expansionist (Hawaii) • Imperialistic policies that thrust America into the world • Dynamic foreign policy, created a new government in Philippines • Financed revolution in Panama to gain support for the Canal there • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  17. Progressive Democrats • Wilsonian Democrats • Fight for the common man • Supported policies against the banks • Fought against those who made too much money during the Gilded Age • Fought the “American Aristocracy” • To deal with big business they supported • Busting of good and bad trusts in order to protect small businessmen • Lowering tariff rates to stop protecting big American corporations Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  18. Progressive Democrats • Regulations that would protect labor unions from trust busting • To deal with big banks the Wilsonians supported a complete overhaul of the banks • They established a much more centralized banking system under the FED • The head of which would be appointed by the President of the United States • To deal with the actual “monied” aristocracy • They enacted a progressive income tax system • Allowed the government to impose selective tax rates so as not to harm the “common man” Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  19. Hoover Era Republican Party • Hoover elected president • Strong center-right policy • Stock Market crash led to Great Depression • Republican policy stayed conservative in a hands off governmental policy • Relied on local level to rectify the poverty • “Rugged Individualism” • Kept government out of nation’s economic problems • When it became obvious that government intervention was required, innovative counteraction programs were implemented Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  20. New Deal Democrats • Dominated by the policies of FDR • Supported government regulation of corporations and big banks • They created regulatory agencies such as the Exchanges Commission • They required banks to pay into the FDIC insurance • They supported the regulation of oil prices and pipeline construction • Increasing the amount of tax the upper class was required to pay Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  21. New Deal Democrats • Believed government should also regulate employment and social stability • The expansion of the eminent domain and state seizure for public works • Employing people in public works • The regulation of employee working hours and wages • Regulation increasing the protection afforded to labor unions • Establishment of a social security net for the lower classes Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  22. Republican Party (Eisenhower Presidency) • Dynamic Conservatism • Continued and expanded remaining New Deal policies • Pro-tradition • Expanded Social Security and built Interstate Highway System • Keep Federal government in some areas while moving them out of others • Increased domestic and defense spending • Objectives included balancing budget and anti-communism • Foreign affairs were limited to limiting the spread of communism and adherence to UN • Kept United States out of major foreign conflicts despite Cold War tensions • Attempted to keep peaceful terms with all nations instead of becoming a belligerent in foreign affairs Center- Left Center-Right Center Left Right

  23. Conclusion Democrats End Start Republicans Start End Center- Left Center- Left Center-Right Center-Right Center Center Left Left Right Right