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Choosing a path of change: Envisioning a strategy for successful organizational change

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  1. Choosing a path of change:Envisioning a strategy for successful organizational change MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.

  2. As most managers/leaders know from first-hand experience... • The primary maladaptation involves people... …who enact differing views of reality into what they define as the organizational reality (Weick,1979, 1995) …and, thus, maladaptive behavior manifests itself in organizational dysfunction

  3. Creating Paths of Change(McWhinney, Webber, Smith, & Novokowsky, 1997) • Asserts that organization change begins first with self-change... …that is, if manager/leaders are to initiate organizational change, they first must understand how they view the world …because how individuals view reality is a critical element in how they formulate a decision (p. 3)

  4. Organizational change involves a five-step process... 1- to identify and understand one’s view of reality and attitudes toward change …requires managers/leaders to grapple with all that is “antecedent” to a practice episode (Sergiovanni, 1986)

  5. 2- to search for resources, people, money, and situations that match one’s image of what it will take to “work the larger issue” …necessitates differentiating between organizational “problems” and the “issue” implicit in the problems

  6. 3- to engage team members in examining one another’s views of reality as well as each member’s assets and deficits …provides the experiential base of self-reflection and understanding of alternative views that enables team members to assess the current organizational situation (“reality”)

  7. 4- to identify the organizational problem(s) and to organize resources into a coherent force …engages team members to identify the maladaptation between people, process, and technology …as these are attributed not to people but to the strengths and limitations of their differing views of reality

  8. 5- to formulate a path of change …a path that allows managers/leaders to solve the organizational issue by inculturating shared values (Schein, 1990, 1992) …as followers solve problems as they emerge because the changing patterns of the followers’ interactions require new solutions

  9. Creating Paths of Change(McWhinney, Webber, Smith, & Novokowsky, 1997) • Organizational change can consist of one of two grand paths of change... …the grand path of renaissance …or the grand path of revitalization. Each of these two grand paths utilize multiple modes of change.

  10. Organizational change can also consist of a single, minor path... …socio-technical systems design …business process re-engineering …interactive planning …mediation These minor paths utilize one mode of change. …organizational design

  11. Initiating either of the two grand paths of change... • begins in the sensory reality …where there is evidence of a need for organizational change …and managers/leaders start “working an issue” …by choosing a direction to resolve the conflicts between competing values

  12. the goal of each grand path of organizational change... …is for the followers to begin “working the problems” to successful solution

  13. Initiating the minor paths of change... • begins in the sensory reality …where there is evidence of a need for organizational change …and managers/leaders believe that making a simple and well-identified intervention

  14. the goal of the minor path of organizational change... …to deal effectively with immediate problems that do not necessitate an “issue defined” change effort

  15. The sensory view of reality in action... Formulating policies along a revitalizing pathway Sensory test Generating new ideas through a co-creative pathway Inquiring into values along a pathway of renaissance induce value

  16. The origin and direction of the two grand paths of organizational change... The grand path of revitalization begins in the analytic mode and uses the tool of testing to define the direction of the path of change Sensory test The grand path of renaissance begins in the evaluative mode, using the tool of valuing to define the direction of the path of change value

  17. Grand Path #1: Organizational renaissance... Sensory Unitary Social Mythic

  18. Grand Path #2: Organizational revitalization... Sensory Unitary Social Mythic

  19. Initiating the grand path of organizational renaissance...

  20. Sensory Unitary Social Mythic

  21. The grand path of organizational renaissance can begin with a desperate situation... …where organizational action and outcomes are obsolete (e.g., “teddy bears” per Winnicott, 1958).

  22. Or, organizational renaissance can begin in an entrepreneurial situation where an opportunity presents itself... …and organizational action can pave the way for new possibilities...

  23. with the outcome... …of a dramatic organizational turnaround …or of an organizational rebirth in a new form.

  24. The grand path of organizational renaissance begins with action... action policy values vision

  25. Step 1: A measured loss of meaning... Data indicate some form of organizational failure action policy values vision

  26. “game playing” on the first board... action where problems arise structural problems  human resources problems  political problems  cultural/symbolic problems (Bolman & Deal, 1997) …to identify what isn’t working and won’t work any longer

  27. Step 2: Evaluative mode... action policy values vision To elicit what matters: why do we do what we do?

  28. “game playing” on the third board... values1 how problems are defined antecedents  theories of practice  organizational culture  organizational environment …to elicit what really matters

  29. with the outcomes... …communicating …bargaining …allocating

  30. Step 3: Emergent mode... action policy values vision To co-create images that reflect shared values

  31. “game playing” on the sixth board... truth  a substantive vision provides meaning and purpose  rooted in culture and perdures beyond individuals  abstract, needs to be made concrete in human experience …to co-create a new truth based upon shared values

  32. Step 4: Assertive mode... To formulate policies that express the vision action policy values vision

  33. “game playing” on the second board... power1 how problems are dealt with coercive  remunerative  normative (Simon, 1947) …to formulate new policies reflecting new truth

  34. Step 5: Analytic mode... To put new policies into action action policy values vision

  35. “game playing” on the second board... power2 how problems are dealt with coercive  remunerative  normative (Simon, 1947) …to put new policies into practice

  36. The desired managerial/leadership outcome being that... truth values …while followers “work the problems” toward solutions power …the manager/leader “works the issue” toward resolution action

  37. Initiating the grand path of organizational revitalization...

  38. Sensory Unitary Social Mythic

  39. The grand path of organizational revitalization is used most frequently by managers/leaders in response to moderate organizational crises... …features organizational adaptation (e.g., contingency theory per Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967).

  40. The purpose of organizational revitalization is to strengthen the extant organization... …though various technical processes (e.g., Total Quality Management [TQM], Continuous Quality Improvement [CQI]), Organizational Development [OD], Organizational Re-engineering).

  41. The grand path of organizational revitalization begins with action... action policy values vision

  42. Step 1: Awareness of a problem... Data indicate some form of organizational failure action policy values vision

  43. “game playing” on the first board... action where problems arise structural problems  human resources problems  political problems  cultural/symbolic problems …to test the “one best way” (Taylor, 1911)

  44. Step 2: Analytic mode... To renew organizational purpose, policies, and goals action policy values vision

  45. “game playing” on the second board... power how problems are dealt with coercive  remunerative  normative (Simon, 1947) …to make the organization responsive to its reality

  46. Step 3: Assertive mode... action policy values vision To mobilize people around the renewed organizational purpose, policies, and goals

  47. “game playing” on the sixth board... truth a substantive vision provides meaning and purpose  rooted in culture that perdures beyond individuals  abstract, needing to be made concrete in human experience …to facilitate the adoption of shared values among all stakeholders

  48. Step 4: Emergent mode... action policy values vision To motivate workers to valuethe renewed organizational purpose, policies, and goals

  49. “game playing” on the third board... values how problems are defined antecedents  theories of practice  organizational culture  organizational environment …to identify and divide up job roles and responsibilities

  50. Step 5: Evaluative mode... To allocate responsibilities and engage in action action policy values vision