Teaching and learningAchieving quality for all Name: Event: Location, date 2014
Key messages • By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals. • There is a global learning crisis that is hitting the disadvantaged hardest. • Good quality education can only be achieved with good quality teachers. • Global education goals after 2015 must track progress of the marginalized. • Post-2015 goals must include specific targets to finance education.
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015 • Goal 1:Early childhood care and education • 1 in 4 children under 5 suffer from stunting, because of malnutrition. • 50% of young children have access to pre-primary education, but only 17% in low income countries. • Goal 2: Universal primary education • 57 million childrenare out of school, half of whom live in conflict-affected countries. • In sub-Saharan Africa, only 23% of poor, rural girls complete primary education.
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015 Goal 3: Youth and adult skills • 69 million adolescents are out of school. • In low income countries, only 37% of adolescents complete lower secondary education, and only 14% of the poorest.
The number of adolescents out of school declined slowly 120 Out - of - Out-of-school children 107 100 Out-of-school adolescents 101 - o - 81 80 73 Millions 69 57 60 40 31 South and West Asia 40 20 22 Sub-Saharan Africa 22 0 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 Source: UIS database.
EFA goals will not be reached by 2015 • Goal 4:Adult literacy • 774 million adults are illiterate, a decline of just 1% since 2000. • Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women. • Goal 5: Gender parity and equality • There are fewer than 9 girls for every 10 boys: • in 17 countries at primary level • in 30 countries at secondary level.
Percentage of countries projected to reach a benchmark for five EFA goals by 2015 By 2015, many countries will still not have reached the EFA goals Source: Bruneforth (2013).
Fall in aid threatens education in the poorest countries There is a financing gap of $26 billion per year Yet, aid to basic education fell by 6% between 2010 and 2011 8 6 4 6.2 6.2 5.8 5.2 5.1 4.6 4.2 2 3.6 3.3 Constant 2011 US$ billions 3.0 0 Only US$1.9 billion of basic education aid was allocated to low income countries in 2011. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source: OECD-DAC (2013)
Targets must be set so no one is left behind due to lack of resources After 2015, financing targets should be set for countries to allocate: • at least 6% of GNP on education; only 41 had reached this level by 2011 • at least 20% of their budget on education; only 25 had reached this level by 2011 Financing targets should also apply to aid donors so that all funders are held to account for their promises.
Many children in the poorest countries are not learning the basics Reached grade 4 and learned the basics
Poorer children learn less Children completing primary school and achieving minimum learning standards in mathematics, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America 100 80 Children of primary school age (%) 60 Rich 40 Poor 20 0 Panama Burkina Faso Cameroon Burundi Dominican Rep. Côte d'Ivoire Zimbabwe U. R. Tanzania Nicaragua Uganda El Salvador Costa Rica Mauritania Madagascar Mozambique Swaziland Guatemala Ecuador Colombia Paraguay Argentina Lesotho Congo Zambia Namibia Kenya Uruguay Chile Brazil Senegal Malawi Peru Chad Benin Central and West Africa Latin America Southern and Eastern Africa
Poor quality education leaves a legacy of illiteracy One-quarter of those aged 15 to 24 in poor countries are unable to read a single sentence.
Strategy 1: Recruit the best candidates • 1.6 million additional teachers are needed to achieve universal primary education by 2015 6 Total primary teacher recruitment needed (millions) Sub- - 5 Saharan Additional teachers 1.6 million Africa All 60% other • On current trends, 29 countries will not even have filled their primary school teacher gap by 2030 • 5.1 million additional teachers will be needed to achieve universal lower secondary education by 2030 4 3 0.7 Replacement for attrition 3.7 million 2 1 0 2011-2015 Source: UIS (2013)
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: Policy-makers must attract the best candidates to teaching • All trainees need, at a minimum, to have completed secondary education with good grades. • There should be a good balance of male to female teachers. • Teachers from a diverse range of backgrounds need to be attracted to the profession.
Strategy 2: Train all teachers well In one out of three countries, less than three-quarters of teachers are trained to national standards 160 Pupil/trained teacher ratio 140 Pupil/teacher ratio 120 Pupils per teacher 100 80 60 40 20 0 Solomon Is. Chad Bangladesh Ethiopia Mozambique Sierra Leone Benin Equat. Guinea Guinea C. A. R. Senegal Ghana Guinea-Bissau Kyrgyzstan S.Tome/Principe Togo Nicaragua Comoros Cameroon Lesotho Nigeria Mali Liberia Sudan (pre-secession) Barbados Guyana Dominica Belize Qatar Source: UIS database.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Policy-makers must provide good quality pre-service and ongoing teacher education • Teachers must have good subject knowledge. • Teachers must be equipped to meet the needs of those from disadvantaged backgrounds. • Teachers need training in the use of assessment tools to detect and address learning difficulties early. • Teacher trainees should have classroom experience and new teachers need support of mentors. • Training must not stop once teachers are in the classroom. • Teacher educators need training too.
Strategy 3: Allocate teachers to reach the disadvantaged The unequal allocation of teachers is affected by four main factors • Urban bias • Ethnicity and language • Gender • Subjects
POLICYRECOMMENDATIONS Policy-makers must allocate the best teachers where they are most needed • Teachers should be provided with incentives to work in remote areas • Local recruitment of teachers helps to ensure sufficient teachers are working in difficult areas
Strategy4: Provide incentives to retain teachers Teachers in some poor countries are not paid enough to live on C. A. R. In Liberia, where a family needs at least US$10 per day, teachers are paid only US$6 a day. Liberia Guinea Bissau D.R. Congo Madagascar Zambia Uganda Mozambique Comoros Rwanda Chad Guinea Sierra Leone Gambia Togo Niger Mali Congo S. Tome/Principe Burundi Cameroon Burkina Faso Malawi Benin Angola Senegal Cape Verde Côte d'Ivoire Eritrea Ethiopia Slovak Republic Poland U. R. Tanzania Mauritania Hungary Estonia Nigeria Kenya Mexico Morocco 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Daily salary of a primary school teacher, 2011 PPP US$ Source: Pole de Dakar database; OECD (2013b).
Strategy4: Provide incentives to retain teachers Many West African countries have a teaching force made up largely of people on short-term contracts Share of total primary teacher workforce (%) 100 90 80 70 - 60 50 40 30 20 10 Rwanda Senegal 0 Guinea Bissau Guinea Côte d'Ivoire Madagascar Burkina Faso Congo Gambia C.A.R Uganda Togo Benin Comoros Cameroon Burundi Malawi Chad Niger Mali Civil servant Contract Source: Pôle de Dakar database.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: Provide incentives to retain the best teachers • Teachers should be paid enough to meet at least their basic needs, and offered the best possible working conditions. • Teachers also need an attractive career path that rewards those who address diversity and support weak students.
Strengthen teacher governance Measures are needed to address teacher misconduct: • to tackle gender-based violence • to reduce teacher absenteeism • to prevent teachers offering private tuition to their own students.
Provide appropriate curriculum & assessment strategies Policy-makers must ensure teachers are supported by strategies that: • Support learning from the earliest years delivered at an appropriate pace • Provide education in relevant languages • Promote inclusion through the curriculum • Provide accelerated second-chance programmes • Identify and support low achievers with classroom assessment
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