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  1. Race & Ethnicity

  2. Bell Work – Race & Ethnicity 4/30 • What is Race? • Is race a real thing? • What is the purpose of race? • When did you first encounter race?

  3. Plato’s Cave

  4. “Race” is a social construction • Race- a category of people who share observable traits whom OTHERS see as a distinct group • Ethnicity – refers to a set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another, it is generally based on, national origin, religion, language customs and values

  5. The Social Construction of “Race” • In 1790, the 1st U.S. census used the following classifications: Free White Males, Free White Females, All other Free Persons, and Slaves • In 1870 there were 5 races; White, Colored (Black), Mulatto (people with some black blood), Chinese & Indian • In 1890, 8 races were listed: White, Colored (black), Mulatto(3/8th to 5/8th black blood), Quadroon (1/4th black blood), Octoroon (1/8th black blood), Chinese, Japanese and Indian • In 1900, Mulatto, Quadroon, and Octoroon were dropped so that any amount of black inheritance mean a person had to be classified as “Black” • Between 1930 and 2000 some racial classifications (Hindu, Eskimo, Hawaiian, and Mexican) appeared and disappeared. Others (Filipino, Korean, Hawaiian, Mexican) made an appearance and have stayed ever since • Currently on the census form there are a wide variety of racial categories to choose from: White, Black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Native Hawaiian, Guamanian and Samoan

  6. How the Irish became White • "my master was a great tyrant, he treats me badly, as if I were a common Irishman,“ • Daniel O'Connell – Irish Revolutionary – Asked Irish-Americans to support the repel of slavery • Minstrel Shows – Black face • Identification of a common ‘enemy’

  7. What was happening when the Irish became ‘white’? • Assimilation- the blending of minority groups into dominant society • Specifically – Anglo-Conformity • Melting Pot or Tossed Salad? • Everyone’s Irish on St. Patties Day • China Town & Little Italy • Accommodation- minority learns to deal with majority when necessary but keeps its language and culture • Amish People Cubans in Miami Asians in California

  8. Bell Work 5/2 • Some words you’ll need to remember for today • Internalization • Role Taking Theory & the Looking Glass Self • Labeling Theory • Manifest and Latent Function

  9. Minstrel Shows • The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. • Now if I was President ob dese United States, • I'd drink mint julep, an swing upon de gates… • So I wheel about, &c…. • I'm for a union gal, an dis is a stubborn fact, • Butt if I marry an don't like it, I'll nullify the act

  10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UfiNT6AKG0s • How do the artists mannerisms change throughout their skit?

  11. Common Minstrel Characters • These four stock characters were among several that reappeared in minstrel shows throughout the nineteenth century. • "Jim Crow" was the stereotypical carefree slave, • "Mr. Tambo" a joyous musician, • "Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above his station. • “Circassian Beauty” – usually a seductive female slave of mixed decent

  12. Lupe Fiasco “Bitch Bad”Trinidad James All Gold EverythingDef Poetry – Julian Curry

  13. Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice involves attitudes, while discrimination is about behavior. Prejudice usually leads to discrimination. Conversely in some instances, discrimination creates prejudice. How does this happen?

  14. Prejudice, Racism and Discrimination • Prejudice- widely held negative attitudes toward a group and its individual members • Are most people prejudiced? Or are most people free from prejudice? • Racism- an extreme form of prejudice that assumes superiority of one group over others • Discrimination- treating people differently based on race, ethnicity, or culture

  15. Discrimination 2 types • Legal discrimination • Examples? • Apartheid in South Africa, • Jim Crow Laws • Institutionalized Discrimination • Over time, unequal access to resources pushes minority groups into less powerful places in society

  16. Prejudice • Negative prejudice is based on stereotypes • a stereotype is an oversimplified, exaggerated or unfavorable generalization about a group of people

  17. Stereotypes • Think of the following while you stereotype this person • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  18. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  19. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  20. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  21. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  22. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  23. Stereotypes What do they do for fun? Where are they from? What type of life do they lead?

  24. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  25. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  26. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  27. Stereotypes • What do they do for fun? • Where are they from? • What type of life do they lead?

  28. Islam • 1. Islam is one of three traditional branches of Abraham. The other two are Judaism and Christianity. People who practice Islam are called Muslims. • 2. Muslims believe in all prophets that Jews and Christians believe in, including Jesus. BUT, they believe that there was an additional prophet named Mohammad. • 3. Islam is based on the Koran – a holy book that is very similar to the Bible. • 4. There are many groups of Muslims – the branch that are terrorists do not represent Muslims as a whole.

  29. The 5 Pillars • 1. There is only one God. He is Allah. Mohammad was his prophet. • 2. Give to the poor • 3. Live a life of prayer. (Many Muslims pray 5 times a day.) • 4. Strengthen your prayer life by observing Ramadan • 5. If you can afford it, make a pilgrimage to Mecca.

  30. What happens when we Stereotype people? • If people are told often or long enough that they or others are socially mentally or physically inferior they may come to believe it • American Sociologist W. I Thomas • “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” • Robert K Merton & Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true

  31. Today • Identify the characteristics that define the term ‘minority’ • Take a look at different patterns of minority group treatment • Your Bell Work • List the adjectives that describe you, try to come up with as many as possible, shoot for at least 5

  32. Minorities are… Defined by distinctive physical or cultural characteristics that can be used to separate them from the majority Dominated by the majority Possess traits that are perceived to be inferior when compared to the majority Have a common sense of identity with strong group loyalty Determined by who makes up the majority

  33. Merton’s Patterns of Prejudice Does Not Discriminate Discriminates Non-Prejudiced Prejudiced

  34. Patterns of Minority Group Treatment • Cultural Pluralism – allows groups to keep their unique identity • Assimilation – blending of groups into one distinct group • Legal Protection • Segregation- minority groups are forbidden to live and work in the same areas as the dominant group • Population Transfer • Genocide- destruction in whole or in part of a national, racial, ethnic or religious group

  35. Native Americans 1/4th live below poverty line Fewer graduate from high school than any other minority Lowest annual income ($21,619) Only 1 in 5 hold professional, managerial or administrative positions 1 in 3 hold blue collar positions Lack of much political power ½ of those living in reservations are below the poverty line 9.3% not on reservations go to college, opposed to 5% of those on reservations Alcoholism is also incredibly rampant

  36. African Americans • 13% of the population in the United States • Why have they remained America's most dominant minority? • Appearance • Institutional Discrimination – segregation & Jim Crow • Only 40 years of constitutional equality • For every $100 a white person makes African Americans make $62 • Twice as likely to have low level service jobs • implications? • Unemployment for African Americans is twice that of Whites • Does not include hidden unemployment – discouraged workers/part-time workers who would rather be full time meaning 1 in four are ACTUALLY unemployed

  37. Latinos • Fastest growing minority in the United States • ¼ Americans in 2050 • Mostly Mexicans but many are from other regions • Only 50% complete high school opposed to 84% of non-Latinos • Average income for Latinos ($26,628) is higher than African Americans but still much lower than whites ($40,577) • Most work in low-skill, low paying jobs • Cubans are the only sub-group that are similar in employment, education and housing similar to whites • Why? • Politics – 13 Mexicans, 3 Cubans and 1 Puerto Rican in congress, also going to be huge in the future

  38. Asian Americans 4% of the total population China Towns started because of competition for jobs with other immigrants in the late 1800s Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – ends Chinese immigration for a century California Alien Land Bill 1913 – only allowed Japanese to lease, not own, farmland 1924 Immigration Bill completely bars Japanese immigration Pearl Harbor – Executive Order 9066, 111,000 Japanese are put in internment camps Commonly seen as the “model minority”

  39. Institutionalized Discrimination Examples? Do you agree or disagree with Affirmative Action?

  40. True or False • Most hate crimes are extremely brutal and involve violence done to a person • True • The frequency of hate crimes in the U.S. has finally begun to decrease • False, they are still on the rise • Most school related hate crimes are committed by students who belong to organized hate groups • False, most occur with one or two friends • Some kinds of hatred toward certain groups of people are instinctive and biologically based • False, race is a social construction, and racism is learned

  41. Hate Crimes • White supremacist’s shooting spree in Illinois and Indiana that left a black man and a Korean college student dead and nine others injured • The Asian American man in Cali. Who was stabbed to death while rollerblading. Two young men were arrested with Nazi paraphernalia • The destruction of mosques and the verbal harassment of, physical assault, and even the murder of ‘Arab-looking’ people in the days and weeks following Sept. 11 • James Byrd, who was dragged behind a car driven by two white men until his body was torn apart in Texas • The killing of Matthew Sheppard in Laramie Wyoming • In 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded the 1969 U.S Federal Hate-Crime Law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability

  42. Have African Americans Made Advances? • Yes, but… • 84% of whites finish high school compared to 76% of AA • 25% of whites finish college compared to 15% of AA • White high school graduates tend to make as much as AA with a college degree • However since 1960 • Professional and technical jobs for AA has increased 128% • Those with manager/official jobs is twice as high • Since 1970 political power has also increased • 4,800 in city councils opposed to 715 • 8,000 elected officials opposed to 1,600