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Vertebrates: Reptiles, Birds & Mammals. By: Aura, Megan, & Maura. Reptiles. -three chambers in the heart [w/ a small fourth] -lungs -scales -external fertilization -oviparous [lays eggs] -reptiles lay amniotic eggs with shells

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Vertebrates reptiles birds mammals

Vertebrates:Reptiles, Birds & Mammals

By: Aura, Megan, & Maura


-three chambers in the heart [w/ a small fourth]



-external fertilization

-oviparous [lays eggs]

-reptiles lay amniotic eggs with shells

-reptiles have scales with protein keratin in them to create a waterproof barrier which also prevents dehydration.

-the scales help separate them from amphibians; prevents breathing through their skin

-reptiles are ectothermic: they absorb external heat as a main source of insulation

-conserve energy by basking in the sun when cold, and finding shade when too hot

-birds and reptiles both have vertebrates and both have the ability to lay eggs


-four chambers in the heart



-external fertilization

-oviparous [lays eggs]

-wings are remodeled from tetrapod limb. Shape and arrangement of feathers form the wing into airfoils. Bones are hollow and have honeycomb structure that’s filled with air

-birds believed to have evolved from certain species of dinosaurs that also are related to reptiles

-feathers are produced by similar tissues that produce scales; birds have scales on their feet

-flightless birds have no sternal keel and pectoral muscles are undeveloped; feet made to walk on land and usually heavier in weight

Five adaptations for flying
Five Adaptations for Flying

  • Large pectoral muscles connecting to the sternum give flapping powers

  • Efficient respiratory and circulatory systems and a four chambered heart to keep tissues supplied with oxygen

  • No urinary bladder, females have one ovary to cut down on weight

  • Toothless to cut down weight of the skull

  • Hollow bones– help them fly


  • four chambers in the heart

  • lungs

  • skin, hair

  • internal fertilization

  • viviparous [live birth]

  • jaws of later evolved mammals had less bones and jaw joint bone has changed; in fish & reptiles, jaws are composed of several fused bones and two small bones

  • like birds, mammals are endothermic, and most have a high metabolic rate. Reptiles, though, are considered “cold-blooded” because they do not use their metabolism extensively to control their body temperature.

Physical features unique to mammals
Physical Features Unique to Mammals

Physical features of mammals:

  • mammary glands: produce milk for offspring

  • extra layer of fat beneath skin to retain heat

  • differentiation of teeth: come in a variety of shapes & sizes adapted for chewing many different kinds of foods