Ohio Mammals Natural Resources
Badger • Taxidea taxus Badgers go largely unnoticed in Ohio because of their secretive and nocturnal nature. Like their close relative, the striped skunk, badgers have a white stripe that extends back over the head from the nose. They have white fur around their eyes and black cheek patches, or “badges,” for which they are named. The rest of the body is a shaggy mix of silvery gray, black, and buff colors and the feet are black.
Badger Cont… • Habitat: Open plains, farmlands and the edges of woods • Adult Weight:12 - 24 lbs Adult Body Length: 24 inches • Breeding Period: Late summer, early autumn with delayed implantation occurring until February. • Litters Per Year: 1 Litter Size:1 – 5 • Foods: Rodents, ground squirrels, rabbits, reptiles, insects, and worms. They will eat rattlesnakes, with no affects from the venom, unless bitten on the nose. • Range:
Big Brown Bat Cont… The big brown bat is wide spread over most of Ohio. Habitat and Habits During the warm months of the year, big brown bats feed over a variety of habitats, including water, fields, forest openings, and urban and suburban areas. They use two primary types of habitats: hibernation sites used during the winter (e.g., caves, mines) and roosting sites for reproduction (e.g., buildings and under bridges) during the summer. Description As with the little brown bat, the big brown bat’s name is highly descriptive. Its fur is uniformly medium to dark brown on the upper parts, with slightly paler under parts. The fur is relatively long and silky in appearance, compared to other Ohio bats. The ears and wing membranes are dark brown.
Big Brown Bat… • Reproduction and Care of the Young Breeding takes place during the late summer and early fall during a behavioral phenomenon known as “swarming.” At this time, large numbers of bats visit and congregate in a succession of caves just prior to hibernation. Although sperm is transferred to the female during copulation that occurs in the fall, ovulation and fertilization of the egg are delayed until the females arouse from hibernation the following spring. During the summer, females form maternity colonies, mostly in man-made structures, especially barns. At this time, big brown bats avoid some of the higher roost temperatures tolerated by little brown bats, and will abandon any area that gets over 95º F.
Hoary Bat • Lasiurus cinereus Wide spread across the United States Hoary bats are large, dark-colored and heavily furred bats. The tip of their hair is white, giving the bat a frosted, or hoary appearance. Hoary bats spend the summer days hidden in the foliage of trees. Much like the red bat, they choose a leafy site open beneath them, and usually 10-15 feet above the ground. Because hoary bats are solitary roosting bats and keep themselves well hidden, this species is usually never encountered by humans.
Hoary Bat Cont… • Hoary bats feed on moths, beetles, and mosquitoes. Hoary bats mate in the fall and like most bats do not become pregnant until early spring. • Parturition dates range from May to July; mother bats give birth to an average of two pups a summer. The mother leaves the young ones on a leaf or branch as she forages for insects in the evening. Occasionally, if there is a disturbance, she will move the pups from one tree to another.
Black Bear Ursus americanus
Beaver • Castor canadensis Beavers are well adapted to life in the water. Their webbed feet, waterproof fur, clear “third-eyelids,” and flattened, rudder-like tail enable them to be excellent swimmers. Their huge front teeth help them to cut through hard woods like maple and oak. These teeth grow throughout the animal's lifetime and are necessary for survival .
Bobcat • Lynx rufus • Light gray, yellowish brown, buff • brown and reddish brown on the upper parts • fur in the middle is darker than the fur on the sides • inside legs are whitish colors with dark spots or bars
Bobcat • Native to Ohio • one of seven cat species found in North America • Rarely seen in Ohio as they were extirpated from the state in 1850 • 20 bobcats were reported in 2005 • Solitary animal
Eastern Chipmunk Tamias striatusHabitat: • Deciduous forest and brushy areas, shallow burrows in the ground that they dig by carrying away their dirt in their cheek pouches
Eastern Chipmunk • Reddish-brown with five black stripes on their backs, stripes are separated by brown, white or gray color
Coyote • Canis latrans • not native in Ohio, but present in whole State today • can make a home almost everywhere
Whitetail Deer • Odocoileus virginianus • State’s wildlife areas, parks and nature preserves, backyards of rural and suburban areas
Whitetail Deer • Two seasonal coats • spring/summer coat is reddish tan and short with a thin and wiry hair texture • winter coat is more grayish or even bluish tan with heavy, long guard hairs and a thick undercoat that provides insulation
Gray Fox • Urocyon cinereoargenteus • One of two foxes in Ohio and one out of 4 in North America • Gray fox habitat declined • wooded areas and partially open brush land with little human presence are the habitat for gray foxes in Ohio
Red Fox • Vulpes vulpes • The red fox is one of two fox species that live in Ohio and one of four of them in North America. Red foxes are native to Ohio. • The red fox has a range of two miles leaving home to search for food, unless food is scarce. They are nocturnal creatures, but often are found hunting in daylight hours. They like to eat mice, rats, rabbits, groundhogs, birds, fruits, and some grasses. • The red fox can be different colors, but it gets its name because that’s the basic color. The red fox’s undersides, throat area, and cheeks are white. Its feet, legs, and outside the ears are black. • There peak breeding activity is January to February. The young are born is February-April. The litter size is 5-6 kits. Young leave parents in the fall 6-8 months after birth. The red fox only has one liter per year.
Mink • Mustela vison • The mink was the most common in Ohio before the settlement and are in every county in Ohio. • The mink is almost always found near water. They are drawn to areas that are wooded or brushy. They eat small mammals that are muskrat size, birds, frogs, eggs, fish, and crayfish. • The mink is a weasel or ferret-like animal. It has a long, narrow body, but it’s a little larger than a weasel or ferret and has a bushy tail. It has small rounded ears, short legs, and sharp claws. The mink’s coat is normally brown, but can look black. The mink has a white chest. • The peak breeding activity is January to March. The young are born in April to May. The litter size can be 2-10 but the average is 6. The only have one litter per year.
Eastern Mole • Scalopus aquaticus • The eastern mole is widespread. • The eastern mole can be found in areas with moist, sandy loam soil like lawns, fields, golf courses, and so on. They burrow below the surface of the ground. They eat worms, insects, and vegetable matter. • The eastern mole has tiny eyes and ears. Its palms are turned outward and it has broad front feet. It’s fur is a silvery gray color, and their tale is hairless. • They only breed once a year. Have a gestation period of six weeks and have 4-5 young. They live in a nest in a tunnel system, and leave there mother after a month old.
Starnose Mole • Condylura cristata • Live in many places. • The star-nosed mole lives in low, wet soil near lakes or streams. They eat earthworms and aquatic insects. • The star-nosed mole is easily defined by its nose. There nose has 22 finger-like tentacles that surround it. There bodies are dark brown or black and there tail is hairy. The star-nosed moles are very good swimmers. • The male and females pair up in the fall. They only have one litter per year. They have 3-7 young that are born between April and June. There gestation period is about 45 days. The young become independent at 3 weeks old.
House Mouse • Mus musculus • The house mouse lives everywhere. • The mouse is normally found in close contact with humans. They are occasionally found in fields and they usually live in buildings. They eat some plants, insects, and some meat. • They are small, grayish brown and have a gray or buffed colored stomach. There tail is scaly. • The house mouse produces all the time normally having several litters a year. The have 3-11 babies and their gestation period is only 18-21 days. The young are with there mothers for at least 21 days.
Meadow Jumping Mouse • Zapus hudsonius
Meadow Jumping Mouse • Location Widespread • Habitat Lives in a variety of habitats with herbaceous cover, but it prefers low, moist grasslands. Wooded areas are avoided • Description Olive-yellow mouse, long tail, large hind feet which help to distinguish it from other mammals • Reproduction April-May, 18-21 day gestation period with 4-5 in each litter, females produce 2-3 litters per year
White Footed Mouse • Peromyscus leucopus
White Footed Mouse • Location Widespread • Habitat Live in variety of habitats, most often found in woody or brushy areas; most abundant rodent in mixed forests and edges of agricultural fields in the United States; build nests anywhere warm and dry, such as hollow trees or old bird nests. • Description Upperparts of mouse are a pale to rich reddish-brown; belly and feet are white; tail is usually shorter than the entire length of the body. • Reproduction Produces two to four litters per year; March-June; litter of 2-6 after gestation periods of 22-28 days.
Muskrat • Ondatra zibethicus
Muskrat • Location Ponds, rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands • Habitat Just like beavers, spend majority of day sleeping, spend nights in water, build lodges • Description Large freshwater rodents that look very much like a beaver, but are actually related to mice and rats; two coats of fur; swimmers of up to 3 miles per hour • Reproduction Gestation period of 22-39 days, March-November, up to 35 young a year, born hairless but grow fur and gain ability to swim within first few weeks of life
Little Brown Myotis • Myotis lucifugus
Little Brown Myotis • Location Northern Ohio • Habitat Temperate forests and woodlands near fresh water • Description Body length of 3 1/8" to 3 3/4", wingspan about 11". Glossy brown fur above, paler below. Medium length ears • Reproduction Gestation period of 50-60 days, born May-July
Virginia Opossum • Didelphis virginiana
Virginia Opossum • Location Found in every county in the state, more abundant in southern Ohio • Habitat Ideal habitat is area interspersed with woods, wetlands, and farmland; den is usually situated in a wooded area near water; will take shelter anywhere it can stay dry and safe from predators. • Description North Americas only marsupial; adult opossum is about size of large house cat; coarse, grizzled grayish fur; long, scaly tail; long, pointed snout that ends in a pink nose. • Reproduction Offspring stays in pouch for 2-3 months; 12-13 day gestation period, March-April, 5-25 in litter, average is 9; 1-3 litters per year
River Otter • Lontra canadensis
Eastern Pipistrelle • Pipistrellus subflavus
Eastern Cotton Tail Rabbit • Sylvilagus floridanus
Raccoon • Procyon lotor
Norway Rat • Rattus norvegicus
Least Shrew • Cryptotis parva • Very wide spread throughout Ohio • They prefer open, grass-covered, or bushy areas. • They are cinnamon colored and a very short tail • They breed from March to November
Short Tailed Shrew • Blarina brevicauda • Very widespread throughout Ohio • Live in fields, or grassy areas near water • Small with very short tail, tiny eyes, ears concealed by fur, and grey in color. • Breed from March to September with 2-4 litters per year and 5-7 young
Striped Skunk • Mephitis mephitis
Striped Skunk cont. • They are found in every county in Ohio. • They occupy many different habitats including rural and suburb areas. • They are black with white in the face and a white “V” on the back • Their colors vary from brown, white, black, cream, and occasionally albino.