p. 394. CHAPTER 14 FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES. All are vertebrates and belong to the Phylum Chordata “chordates”. To be a chordate, certain characteristics must be present at sometime during its life. Notochord (p.395)
To be a chordate, certain characteristics must be present at sometime during its life.
- a rod-like piece of cartilage that runs along the dorsal side.
- it turns into the backbone.
Example 1: tunicate
- carries messages from the brain.
- openings in the throat area.
- found in all vertebrates during the embryo stage.
- turns into lungs.
- their temperature changes with the environment.
- three classes.
- it sucks the fluids out of its host.
- live in the Great Lakes (invasive species).
- attacks dying or dead fish.
Ex. sharks, rays, skates.
- have skeletons made of cartilage.
- sharp and pointy.
- not round.
- replaceable teeth that slant inwards.
- sense of smell
(45 feet long)
2) lays eggs
1) young are born ‘live’.
3) eggs ‘hatch’ inside the female.
- have simple lungs and gills.
ex. African lungfish
- fins attach to the skeleton.
Ex. walleye, perch, salmon.
- runs along the side of the fish.
- can sense vibrations and electrical currents.
- water passes over the gills and they extract oxygen.
- release CO2
- many tiny blood vessels.
- a bony plate which covers the gills.
- controls buoyancy.
- fills with air to rise.
- no eyelids!
- stomach, liver, intestines…
Ex. frogs, toads
2,500 different species.
- to reproduce (lay eggs)
- can easily be absorbed thru their skin.
- slowed metabolism.
- called hibernation.
- called estivation.
- can absorb oxygen through their skin.
- lay eggs in water.
- colors are often “bright”
- skin is ‘bumpier’
- doesn’t dry out.
- but must return to water to reproduce.
- smooth skin (no scales).
- amphib with a tail.
- a legless, blind amphibian found in rain forests
- the change in form from egg to adult.
- must stay in water.
- protein speeds up the process.
- but can take years…
Ex. turtle, snakes, alligator.
- keep moisture in.
- are land organisms.
READ ‘Importance and Origin of Reptiles’ (p. 417).
- but the Komodo Dragon can be 10 feet long.
- some are venomous.
- to swallow large prey.
- the mother protects the eggs and the young after they hatch.
- water is the greatest limiting factor.