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p. 394. CHAPTER 14 FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES. All are vertebrates and belong to the Phylum Chordata “chordates”. To be a chordate, certain characteristics must be present at sometime during its life. Notochord (p.395)

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all are vertebrates and belong to the phylum chordata chordates
All are vertebrates and belong to the Phylum Chordata “chordates”

To be a chordate, certain characteristics must be present at sometime during its life.

Notochord (p.395)

- a rod-like piece of cartilage that runs along the dorsal side.

slide6
nerve chord
  • turns into the spinal cord.

- carries messages from the brain.

slide7
gill slits(pharanygeal pouches)

- openings in the throat area.

- found in all vertebrates during the embryo stage.

- turns into lungs.

most vertebrates are ectotherms
Most vertebrates are ectotherms.
  • “cold-blooded”

- their temperature changes with the environment.

slide11
FISH
  • 30,000 different species.

- three classes.

1 class agnatha jawless fish p 402
1) Class Agnatha “jawless fish” p. 402
  • simplest vertebrates.
  • no jaw - has a ‘sucker’ mouth.

- it sucks the fluids out of its host.

their skeletons are made of cartilage no real bones very flexible
their skeletons are made of cartilage - no real bones - very flexible.

Ex. Lampreys

  • attack healthy fish.

- live in the Great Lakes (invasive species).

slide14
Ex. Hagfish (p. 402)

- attacks dying or dead fish.

2 class chondrichthyes p 402
2) Class Chondrichthyes (p. 402)
  • are the cartilaginous fish.

Ex. sharks, rays, skates.

- have skeletons made of cartilage.

they have traits of advanced fish
They have traits of ‘advanced’ fish.
  • scales

- sharp and pointy.

- not round.

- ‘hydrodynamic’

  • jaws
  • - can ‘unhinge’.
sharks
Sharks
  • most are not dangerous but are efficient predators.

- replaceable teeth that slant inwards.

- sense of smell

slide18
Largest =

Whale shark

(45 feet long)

‘Meanest’ =

Great White

sharks can reproduce sexually in three different ways
- sharks can reproduce sexually in three different ways.

2) lays eggs

1) young are born ‘live’.

3) eggs ‘hatch’ inside the female.

more sharks
More sharks…

Goblin Shark

Thresher Shark

Basking Shark

Sawtooth Shark

more cartilage fish
More Cartilage Fish

Manta Ray

Skate

north dakota chondrichthyes
North Dakota Chondrichthyes

Paddlefish

Sturgeon

3 class osteichthyes bony fish
3) Class Osteichthyes “bony fish”
  • largest class of fish. (95%)

Three groups:

  • lung fish

- have simple lungs and gills.

ex. African lungfish

slide24
2) lobe-finned

- fins attach to the skeleton.

Ex. coelacanth

3 ray finned
3) ray-finned
  • paired fins with long bony spines.
  • largest group.

Ex. walleye, perch, salmon.

features of a bony fish
Features of a Bony Fish

lateral line

- runs along the side of the fish.

- can sense vibrations and electrical currents.

slide28
gills

- water passes over the gills and they extract oxygen.

- release CO2

- many tiny blood vessels.

slide29
operculum

- a bony plate which covers the gills.

slide30
swim bladder

- controls buoyancy.

- fills with air to rise.

slide31

two chambered heart.

  • reproduces sexually.
  • nostrils
  • - a strong sense of smell.

- no eyelids!

have a complete digestive system
- have a complete digestive system.

- stomach, liver, intestines…

which class of fish
WHICH CLASS OF FISH?

Manta

Class Chondrichthyes

Lamprey

Class Agnatha

Northern

Class Osteichthyes

class amphibia amphibians p 407
Class Amphibia “Amphibians” p. 407

Ex. frogs, toads

2,500 different species.

amphibians must live near water
Amphibians must live near water.
  • keep skin moist.

- to reproduce (lay eggs)

many amphibians in minnesota have been found with deformities in recent years
Many amphibians in Minnesota have been found with deformities in recent years.
  • linked to the use of pesticides.

- can easily be absorbed thru their skin.

amphibians are ectothermic
Amphibians are ectothermic.
  • during winter months they become inactive

- slowed metabolism.

- called hibernation.

some become inactive when temperatures are too hot or when water is scarce
- some become inactive when temperatures are too hot or when water is scarce.
  • bury themselves underground.

- called estivation.

amphibians need a strong endoskeleton to support their body while on land
Amphibians need a strong endoskeleton to support their body while on land.
  • they have a three chambered heart.
  • - more advanced than fish.
frogs p 409
Frogs (p. 409)
  • have lungs but can stay under for long periods of time.

- can absorb oxygen through their skin.

have hinged joints
- have hinged joints
  • reproduce sexually

- lay eggs in water.

hundreds of different species and sizes
Hundreds of different species and sizes

- colors are often “bright”

-poisonous

toads
Toads
  • can spend more time out of the water.

- skin is ‘bumpier’

- doesn’t dry out.

- but must return to water to reproduce.

salamanders
Salamanders
  • often confused with lizards.

- smooth skin (no scales).

- amphib with a tail.

caecilians
Caecilians

- a legless, blind amphibian found in rain forests

slide48

AMPHIBIAN METAMORPHOSIS

p. 412

- the change in form from egg to adult.

slide49
egg

tadpole

  • have gills

- must stay in water.

  • develops legs.
  • tail is absorbed.
  • begins eating insects

- protein speeds up the process.

adult

usually takes 4 6 weeks
Usually takes 4 - 6 weeks.
  • warm water and plenty of food will increase the speed of metamorphosis.

- but can take years…

class reptilia reptiles p 412
Class Reptilia ‘Reptiles’ p. 412

Ex. turtle, snakes, alligator.

  • they do not have to return to water.

1) scales

- keep moisture in.

reptiles have a three chambered heart provides more oxygen to the body
Reptiles have a three chambered heart. - provides more oxygen to the body.
  • have lungs

- are land organisms.

READ ‘Importance and Origin of Reptiles’ (p. 417).

lizards
Lizards
  • most are small.

- but the Komodo Dragon can be 10 feet long.

slide57
most lizards are harmless.
  • many eat insects.

- some are venomous.

more lizards
More lizards…

GilaMonster

Fringed Lizard

Gecko

Zebra Lizard

snakes
Snakes
  • reptiles without legs.
  • can unhinge their jaw.

- to swallow large prey.

some are venomous
- some are venomous.

Coral Snake

Rattlesnake

some reptiles have shown maternal care
Some reptiles have shown maternal care.

- the mother protects the eggs and the young after they hatch.

reptiles are more advanced and survivable than amphibians
Reptiles are more advanced and survivable than amphibians.

- water is the greatest limiting factor.