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TOPIC: intro to solutions and Concentration Do Now:. Matter. Pure Substanc es. Mixtures. Elements. Compounds. Homogeneous Mixtures. Heterogeneous Mixtures. Classification of Matter. VIDEO. Heterogeneous Mixtures. See visibly different regions Granite Dirt Cereals Oil & Vinegar

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slide2
Matter

Pure

Substances

Mixtures

Elements

Compounds

Homogeneous

Mixtures

Heterogeneous

Mixtures

Classification of Matter

VIDEO

heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • See visibly different regions
    • Granite
    • Dirt
    • Cereals
    • Oil & Vinegar
  • See a boundary
    • Ice cube in water
homogeneous mixtures solutions
Homogeneous Mixtures(SOLUTIONS)
  • Particlesvery small – on atomic scale
    • Can’t see particles
    • Can’t sort particles
    • Can’t get trapped by filter
    • Can’t scatter light
  • Particles evenly distributed
  • Particles do not separate
solution
Solution

Homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances in a single physical state (phase)

parts of a solution
Parts of a Solution
  • Solute= dissolved substance
  • Solvent= dispersing medium
solutions occur in all 3 phases
Solute

Solvent

Example

Gas

Gas

Air

Liquid

Gas

Water Vapor in Air

Solid

Gas

Mothballs

Gas

Liquid

Seltzer Water

Liquid

Liquid

Antifreeze in radiator

Solid

Liquid

Salt water

Gas

Solid

H2 in Pd metal

Liquid

Solid

Fillings: Hg in Ag

Solid

Solid

Alloys: Brass, etc.

Solutions occur in all 3 phases!
gas in a liquid co 2 in and out of water
Gas in a liquid:CO2 in and out of water

How can you tell a gas is in a liquid??!?

Bubbles mean it’s a mixture not a solution!

slide11
Alloys

Solid in solid

Alloys

slide12
We can determine how much solute and solvent make up a solution = CONCENTRATION
  • Concentration = A measurement that describes how much solute is in a given amount of solvent or solution.
  • Many, many different units to express concentration.
  • Molarity
  • PPM (parts per million)
  • % by mass
  • % by volume
molarity m
Molarity (M)

Molarity (M) = moles of solute

liters of solution

recall mole conversions
Recall mole conversions

moles

FM g

FM = formula mass

Ex: Na3PO4

Na = 3 x 23 = 69

P = 1 x 31 = 31

O = 4 x 16 = 64

164g/mol

1 mol

1 mol

grams

FM g

rearranging
Rearranging …

Molarity (M) = # moles of solute

liters of solution

Liters of solution = # of moles solute

Molarity

# moles of solute = Molarity x Litersof soln

twists
Twists
  • Sometimes give moles of solute;

sometimes give grams of solute

Gramsmust beconverted to moles

  • Sometimes give mL of solution instead of Liters

Millilitersmust be converted to liters

  • Sometimes ask for:
    • grams/moles/volume of solute rather than molarity
    • NOTE: 1 g = 1 ml of water
slide19
---------------101 g/mol

Practice before you start p.16-171. What is the formula mass ofa. KNO32. Convert to molesa. 58g NaCl3. Convert to L a. 500mlb. 10ml

4. Convert to gramsa. 1000ml

b. 1L

c. 50ml

---1 mol

---1000g

---1000ml = 1000g

---50g

--0.5L

---0.01L

percent
Percent
  • By volume

volume (solute) x 100%

volume (solution)

  • By mass

mass (solute) x 100%

mass (solution)

ppm parts per million
grams solutionPPM (parts per million)
  • PPM = grams solute X 1,000,000
  • used when solute is present in very small amounts (The Regents don’t follow this rule)
  • like % except you multiply by 1,000,000 instead of 100
let s practice about 0 0043 g of o 2 can be dissolved in 100 ml of water at 20 o c express in ppm
LET’S PRACTICE:About 0.0043 g of O2 can be dissolved in 100 mL of water at 20oC. Express in ppm.

[Memorize: 1 mL water has mass of 1 g]

  • What is the solvent?
    • Water
  • How much solvent is there?
    • 100 mL = 100 g
  • How much solute is there?
    • 0.0043g
  • How much is the total solution?
    • 100 g + .0043 g = 100.0043g
let s practice about 0 0043 g of o 2 can be dissolved in 100 ml of water at 20 o c express in ppm1
LET’S PRACTICE:About 0.0043 g of O2 can be dissolved in 100 mL of water at 20oC. Express in ppm.

THE EQUATION

ppm = 0.0043g X 1,000,000

100.0043g

ppm = 43 ppm

[Memorize: 1 mL water has mass of 1 g]

now you try co 2 gas has solubility of 0 0972 g 100 g water at 40 o c express in parts per million
NOW YOU TRY:CO2 gas has solubility of 0.0972 g/100 g water at 40oC; Express in parts per million

ppm = 0.0972 g solute X 1,000,000

100.0972 g solution

= 971 ppm

here s another what is the concentration in ppm of a solution with 30 0 g nano 3 in 70 0 g water
HERE’S ANOTHER:What is the concentration in ppm of a solution with 30.0 g NaNO3 in 70.0 g water?

ppm = 30.0 g NaNO3 X 1,000,000

100.0 g solution

= 300,000 = 3.0 X 105 ppm

slide27
LAST ONE:How many grams of KOH are needed to be dissolved in water to make 2000.0 grams of a 10.0 ppm solution?

10 ppm = X grams KOH X 1,000,000

2000.0 g solution

X = 0.02 grams KOH

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