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  1. Topics to be covered • What are solutions? • Solvents and solutes • Solubility and its Factors • Concentrations • Solution Stoichiometry • Colligative Properties

  2. Solutions Chemicals + Water

  3. 1. What are solutions Objective: what are they?

  4. Solutions • Importance of studying solutions • Because many reactions take place in solutions • Because mixing reactants in solid form often do not result in reactions. • Reactions require collisions at the atomic/molecular level, and in the solid state, this does not occur at a significant rate.

  5. 1. What are Solutions? Solutions are… homogenous mixtures • Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous • Mixture vs. Compound

  6. 1. What are Solutions? Homogeneous Even distribution heterogeneous Unevendistribution

  7. 1. What are Solutions? Mixtures Physically mixed Compound Chemically joined

  8. Solutions

  9. 1. What are Solutions? Mixtures Can be separated Compound Cannot Be separated

  10. 1. What are Solutions? Mixtures Can be separated Compound Cannot Be separated

  11. 1. What are Solutions? Solutions are… homogenous mixtures Solutions = two or more things evenly mixed together Solutions = Things mixed into water

  12. 1. What are Solutions? Heterogeneous mixtures: Suspensions & Colloids Suspensions Separates and Settles Colloids do not Jelloor Milk

  13. 2. Solutes and solvents Objective: classifying ingredients in solutions

  14. 2. Solvent and solute All solutions have at least TWO ingredients Ingredients can be classified as either a SOLVENT SOLUTE

  15. 2. Solvent and solute SOLVENT • Present in greater amount • Does the “dissolving” Water is the universal Solvent SOLUTE • Present in LESSER amount • Is the one “dissolved”

  16. 2. Solvent and solute Does not always involve liquids

  17. 2. Solvent and solute Can there be more than one solute in a solution? Can there be more than one solvent in a solution? If a solution is a mixture, do the solutes and the solvents chemically react or physically mix?

  18. 3. Solubility Objective: if something does or does not dissolve

  19. 3. solubility Why do some things dissolve while others do not? What does it mean for something to “dissolve?”

  20. 3. solubility Why do some things dissolve while others do not? “Like dissolves Like”

  21. 3. solubility “Like dissolves Like” Polar Solvent will dissolve… Non-Polar Solvent will dissolve

  22. 3. solubility Miscible vs. Immiscible Miscible = dissolves Immiscible = does NOT dissolve

  23. 3. solubility What does it mean for something to “dissolve?” It means to “dissociate”

  24. Dissociation Separating dipoles

  25. 3. solubility Now we know why some things dissolve and others do not. We also know what it means for something to dissolve.

  26. 3. solubility How much of some thing can be dissolved? Solubility The maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve at a specified temperature and pressure

  27. 3. solubility Increasing/Decreasing Solubility • Temperature • Pressure

  28. 3. solubility What is the trend?

  29. So as temperature _______, solubility ______

  30. 3. solubility Increasing Solubility with Temperature

  31. Unsaturated Solutions more solute can be dissolved no heat necessary

  32. Saturated Solutions no more solute can be dissolved no heat necessary

  33. Super-Saturated Solutions more solute than normal heat necessary

  34. Super-Saturated Solutions Rock Candy

  35. Gas Solute As temperature _____ the solubility of gas _______. So temperature and solubility of a gas have a(n) ____. Recalling Heat as kinetic energy, we can explain this by…

  36. Solubility of Solids Solubility of Gases