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Splash Screen

Splash Screen

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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1Immigration Section 2Urbanization Section 3The Gilded Age Section 4The Birth of Reform Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

  3. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. Intro 1

  4. Why It Matters European and Asian immigrants arrived in the United States in great numbers during the late 1800s. Providing cheap labor, they made rapid industrial growth possible. They also helped populate the growing cities. The immigrants’ presence affected both urban politics and labor unions. Reactions to immigrants and to an urban society were reflected in new political organizations and in literature and philosophy. Intro 6

  5. The Impact Today Industrialization and urbanization permanently influenced American life.  • The United States continues to be a magnet for immigrants seeking a better way of life.  • The cities of the United States continue to draw new residents in search of opportunity. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 7

  6. continued on next slide Intro 8

  7. Intro 9

  8. Europeans Flood Into the United States • By the late 1800s, most European states made it easy to move to America.  • By the 1890s, eastern and southern Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants.  • Of the 14 million immigrants who arrived between 1860 and 1900, many were European Jews. (pages 464–467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

  9. Europeans Flood Into the United States(cont.) • America offered immigrants employment, few immigration restrictions, avoidance of military service, religious freedom, and the chance to move up the social ladder.  • Most immigrants took the difficult trip to America in steerage, the least expensive accommodations on a steamship.  • The 14-day trip usually ended at Ellis Island, a small island in New York Harbor. (pages 464–467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

  10. Europeans Flood Into the United States(cont.) • It served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the East coast after 1892.  • Most immigrants passed through Ellis Island in a day.  • However, some faced the possibility of being separated from family and possibly sent back to Europe due to health problems. (pages 464–467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

  11. Europeans Flood Into the United States(cont.) • Most immigrants settled in cities.  • They lived in neighborhoods that were separated into ethnic groups.  • Here they duplicated many of the comforts of their homelands, including language and religion.  • Immigrants who learned English, adapted to American culture, had marketable skills or money, or if they settled among members of their own ethnic group tended to adjust well to living in the United States. (pages 464–467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

  12. Europeans Flood Into the United States(cont.) What helped immigrants adjust to living in the United States? Immigrants tended to adjust well to living in the United States if they quickly learned English and adapted to the American culture. Skilled immigrants, those who had money, or those who lived among their own ethnic group also tended to adjust more successfully. (pages 464–467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-9

  13. Asian Immigration to America • Severe unemployment, poverty, and famine in China; the discovery of gold in California; the Taiping Rebellion in China; and the demand for railroad workers in the United States led to an increase in Chinese immigration to the United States in the mid-1800s.  • In Western cities, Chinese immigrants worked as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen, and merchants.  • Some opened their own laundries. (page 467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

  14. Asian Immigration to America (cont.) • Between 1900 and 1919, Japanese immigration to the United States drastically increased as Japan began to build an industrial economy and an empire.  • In 1910 a barracks was opened on Angel Island in California.  • Here, Asian immigrants, mostly young men and boys, waited sometimes for months for the results of immigration hearings. (page 467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

  15. Asian Immigration to America (cont.) What caused the increase in Japanese immigrants between 1900 and 1910? Japanese immigration to the United States increased because Japan started to build an industrial economy and an empire. The economy of Japan was disrupted and caused hardship for the Japanese people. (page 467) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-12

  16. The Resurgence of Nativism • The increase in immigration led to nativism, an extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and the desire to limit immigration.  • Earlier, in the 1840s and 1850s, nativism was directed towards the Irish.  • In the early 1900s, it was the Asian, Jews, and eastern Europeans that were the focus of nativism.  • Nativism led to the forming of two anti-immigrant groups. (page 468) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

  17. The Resurgence of Nativism(cont.) • The American Protective Association had 500,000 members by 1887.  • The party’s founder, Henry Bowers, disliked Catholics and foreigners.  • He wanted to stop immigration.  • In the 1870s, Denis Kearny, an Irish immigrant, organized the Workingman’s Party of California. • This group wanted to stop Chinese immigration.  • Racial violence resulted. (page 468) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

  18. The Resurgence of Nativism(cont.) • In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act that barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese already in America from becoming citizens.  • This act was renewed by Congress in 1892, made permanent in 1902, and not repealed until 1943. (page 468) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

  19. Reviewing Themes Geography and History What routes did European and Asian immigrants take to get to the United States? Europeans generally entered through Ellis Island, New York, Asians through Angel Island, San Francisco. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-20

  20. Critical Thinking Analyzing Why did some Americans blame immigrants for the nation’s problems? They were blamed for economic recession and stigmatized for their religion and political beliefs. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

  21. Americans Migrate to the Cities • The urban population of the United States grew from about 10 million in 1870 to over 30 million by 1900.  • Immigrants remained in the cities, where they worked long hours for little pay.  • Still, most immigrants felt their standard of living had improved in the United States.  • Farmers began moving to cities because of better paying jobs, electricity, running water, plumbing, and entertainment. (pages 469–470) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

  22. Americans Migrate to the Cities(cont.) What did the cities have to offer Americans that rural America did not? Cities had electricity, running water, and modern plumbing. People were able to go to museums, attend theater performances, and visit libraries as well. (pages 469–470) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-6

  23. The New Urban Environment • Housing and transportation needs changed due to the increase in the amount of people living in cities.  • As the price of land increased, building owners began to build up.  • Skyscrapers, tall steel frame buildings, were constructed for this reason.  • Chicagoan Louis Sullivan contributed to the design of skyscrapers. (pages 470–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

  24. The New Urban Environment(cont.) • In the late 1800s, various kinds of mass transit developed to move large numbers of people around cities quickly.  • Beginning with the horsecar, and later to the more sophisticated electric trolley cars and elevated railroads, engineers created ways to move the ever-expanding population around the city. (pages 470–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

  25. The New Urban Environment(cont.) What made it necessary to build skyscrapers? The increasing need for land drove the price of land up. Buildings were built upward instead of outward to use less land in an effort to keep costs down. (pages 470–471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-9

  26. Separation by Class • Definite boundaries could be seen between where the wealthy, middle class, and working class people lived.  • Wealthy families lived in the heart of the city where they constructed elaborate homes.  • The middle class, which included doctors, lawyers, engineers, and teachers, tended to live away from the city.  • The majority of urban dwellers were part of the working class who lived in city tenements, or dark and crowded multi-family apartments. (page 471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-10

  27. Separation by Class(cont.) What were some differences between the social classes? The social classes differed in their level of income and the area in which they lived. The wealthy lived in the heart of the city in elaborate homes. The middle class lived away from the central city and used commuter lines to get to work. The working class lived in cities in tenements. (page 471) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-11

  28. Urban Problems • The growth of cities resulted in an increase in crime, fire, disease, and pollution.  • From 1880 to 1900, there was a large increase in the murder rate.  • Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the increase in crime.  • Alcohol contributed to crime in the late 1800s.  • Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera. (page 472) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

  29. Urban Problems(cont.) Were native-born Americans correct in blaming immigrants for the increase in crime and violence? Why or why not? The crime rate for immigrants was not significantly higher than that of native-born Americans. (page 472) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-13

  30. Urban Politics • A new political system was needed to cope with the new urban problems.  • The political machine, an informal political group designed to gain and keep power, provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange for votes.  • Party bosses ran the political machines.  • George Plunket, an Irish immigrant, was one of New York City’s most powerful party bosses.  • The party bosses had tight control of the city’s money. (pages 472–473) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

  31. Urban Politics(cont.) • Many of the politicians became wealthy due to fraud or graft–getting money through dishonest or questionable means.  • The most famous New York Democratic political machine was Tammany Hall.  • During the 1860s and 1870s, Tammany Hall’s boss was William M. Tweed. • He was arrested for corruption and sent to prison in 1874. (pages 472–473) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

  32. Urban Politics(cont.) • Thomas and James Pendergast were party bosses in Kansas City, Missouri.  • They led state and city politics from the 1890s to the 1930s.  • Although corrupt, political machines did supply important services and help assimilate the ever-expanding population of city dwellers. (pages 472–473) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

  33. Urban Politics(cont.) What were some of the problems caused by political machines? The bosses that ran the political machines grew rich by accepting bribes, selling permits to friends, and dealing in other corrupt ways to benefit themselves. (pages 472–473) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-17

  34. Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain what two technologies made the building of skyscrapers possible in the late 1800s. Steel frames and durable plate glass made the building of skyscrapers possible. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-19

  35. Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy How did political machines respond to the needs of the people? Political machines provided jobs, housing, food, heat, and police protection. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-20

  36. Critical Thinking Comparing Compare the conditions under which the wealthy class, the middle class, and the working class lived in the United States in the late 1800s. The wealthy lived in grand homes in fashionable areas. The middle class lived in comfortable homes in streetcar suburbs, and the working class lived in tenements. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

  37. A Changing Culture • In 1873 Mark Twain and Charles Warner co-wrote the novel, The Gilded Age. • Historians use this term to refer to the time between 1870 and 1900.  • The term “gilded” refers to something being gold on the outside while the inside is made of cheaper material.  • The authors tried to point out that although this was a time of growth, beneath the surface were corruption, poverty, and a huge difference between rich and poor. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

  38. A Changing Culture(cont.) • Industrialization and urbanization caused Americans to look at society in a different way.  • This gave way to new values, art, and forms of entertainment.  • A strong belief during the Gilded Age was the idea of individualism. • This is the belief that regardless of your background, you could still rise in society. (pages 476–477) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-6

  39. A Changing Culture(cont.) • Horatio Alger, a minister from Massachusetts, left the clergy and moved to New York where he wrote over 100 novels about rags-to-riches stories. (pages 476–477) Section 3-7

  40. Social Darwinism • Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher, first proposed the idea of Social Darwinism.  • Spencer took Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection and applied it to human society.  • Like Darwin’s theory–that a species that cannot adapt to the environment will eventually die out–Spencer felt that human society evolved through competition. (pages 477–478) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

  41. Social Darwinism(cont.) • He concluded that society progressed and became better because only the fittest people survived.  • Industrial leaders agreed with Social Darwinism.  • Social Darwinism paralleled laissez-faire, an economic doctrine that was opposed to government interference with business. (pages 477–478) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

  42. Social Darwinism(cont.) • Many devout Christians and some leading scientists opposed the idea of Darwin’s conclusions about the origin of new species.  • They rejected the theory of evolution because it went against the Bible’s account of creation. (pages 477–478) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

  43. Social Darwinism(cont.) • Andrew Carnegie, a wealthy business leader, believed in Social Darwinism and laissez-faire.  • However, he also felt those who profited from society should give something back, so he softened Social Darwinism with his Gospel of Wealth. • This philosophy stated that wealthy Americans were responsible and should engage in philanthropy, using great fortunes to further social progress. (pages 477–478) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

  44. Realism • A new movement in art and literature, called realism, portrayed people in realistic situations instead of idealizing them as the romantic artists had done.  • Thomas Eakins, a painter from Philadelphia, observed and painted day-to-day living in a realistic fashion.  • He used realistic detail and precise lighting. (pages 478–479) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-14

  45. Realism(cont.) • Writer and literary critic William Dean Howells wrote realistically about American life.  • He also recognized talent in several writers of this time, including Mark Twain, who wrote Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884.  • Twain is thought to have written the first true American novel.  • Henry James, an English writer, portrayed the lives of the upper class in his 1881 novel, Portrait of a Lady. (pages 478–479) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

  46. Realism(cont.) • Edith Wharton won a Pulitzer Prize for the novel The Age of Innocence, which portrayed the complicated lives of the upper-class in New York in the 1870s. (pages 478–479) Section 3-16

  47. Popular Culture • Popular culture changed in the late 1800s.  • People had more money to spend on entertainment and recreation.  • Work became separate from home.  • People looked to have fun by “going out” to public entertainment.  • During the 1800s, the saloon acted like a community and political center for male workers.  • It offered free toilets, water for horses, free newspapers, and free lunches. (pages 479–480) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

  48. Popular Culture(cont.) • Coney Island in New York was an amusement park that attracted working class families and single adults.  • It offered amusements such as water slides and railroad rides.  • Watching sports became very popular in the late 1800s.  • Baseball began to appear in the United States in the early 1800s. (pages 479–480) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-19

  49. Popular Culture(cont.) • In 1869 the first salaried team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was formed.  • Football and basketball also became popular during this time.  • In the early 1880s, vaudeville became popular.  • It was adapted from the French theater and combined animal acts, acrobats, gymnasts, and dancers in its performance. (pages 479–480) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-20

  50. Popular Culture(cont.) • During this time, people began enjoying ragtime music.  • The most famous African American ragtime composer was Scott Joplin, who became known as the King of Ragtime. (pages 479–480) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-21