Renaissance The “Rebirth” of a Country
I.The Renaissance was the period that followed (brought Europe out of) the Middle Ages. It was a time of renewed interest in things of this world. • A. Human beings and their conditions • B. Education, art, literature, and science • C. Approximately 1300 - 1600
II. The Renaissance started in Italy where wealth from trade supported art learning. • A. Here also modern capitalism was born. Private individuals or companies, not the government, owned businesses. The main goal is profit. • B. Republican government arose in most cities. Citizens participated.
III. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), in The Prince (1513) said, basically, one must do whatever one must do to get and stay in power. If it works, it is the "right" thing to do. Forget ideals; lie, cheat, even murder if you must. A stable state is needed.
IV. Humanism, a system of thought and action concerned with human interests and values, was the dominant movement of the Renaissance. • A. Human beings have dignity and intelligence. • B. They (we) can change the world and make it a better place for all.
V. The ideal so-called Renaissance man was successful in business, well-mannered, educated, athletic, and brave. • A. The goal of education became making people well-rounded. • B. Religion remained important, but the authority and some practices of the church began to be questioned.
Gutenberg Bible • The three-volume Latin text arguably represents the greatest single innovation in the history of communication technology, as well as a style of printing that existed almost unaltered until the twentieth century. • Gutenberg’s invention and the dispersion of relatively cheap printed materials ultimately stimulated enormous change—social, political, economic, and religious.
A. Leanardo da Vinci (1452-1519) painted (Mona Lisa), studied geology, chemistry and anatomy, designed buildings, canals and weapons, and sketched engines and flying machines.
B. Michelangelo Buonaroti (1475-1564) painted (the Sistine Chapel ceiling), sculptured (David), designed buildings, and wrote poetry.
C. William Shakespeare wrote plays showing humans as in God's image, but part of this world as well.
The Tudors • Beginning with Henry VII in 1485. • War of Roses (civil war) had all but bankrupted England. • Henry II was a economical mastermind who restored the treasury and stressed peace • Was a devout and practicing Catholic, as well as a scholar. Both traits he passed onto his son.
Henry VIII (1491-1547)Tudor Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr
Why do we care had 6 wives? In trying to divorce his first wife, Henry VIII was excommunicated from the Catholic Church. He declared himself the Head of the Church of England. He outlawed any Royal from marrying Catholics. These laws have stood until very recently, when Parliament voted that Royals could marry Catholics and still be the Head of the Church of England.
Edward VI (1537-1553)Tudor Crowned at 9 and dead by 15, he never truly “ruled” but his father’s closest advisors continued on with his plans, notably regarding the new state religion. On his deathbed, Edward VI nominated Jane Grey to be his successor, keeping Mary Tudor (devout Catholic) and Elizabeth (daughter of deceitful Anne Boleyn from gaining the crown.
Elizabeth I (1533-1603)Tudor Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Francis Drake Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1588