History 311. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Part I.
THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
Within deeply Christian Europe, a new understanding of nature unfolded—not without opposition, particularly among Scholastics—and it valorized the empirical, the experimental, the mathematical, and the mechanical. Banished were notions of hidden, unknowable forces in nature, spirits, and demons. Mathematics had once been seen as a practical tool, not the province of philosophers. By the late seventeenth century, it had come to be relevant to everything from predicting life expectancy to calibrating machines. These changes coincided with the discovery of new peoples and continents, which in turn suggested that ancient learning, even recent learning, had to be improved. Religious conflict and intolerance also suggested that new sources of knowledge and authority were urgently needed. Gradually, rationalism and empiricism came to displace tradition and religious dogmatism, and, as a result, modern industrial societies emerged. (Jacob, p. 37-38)
Title Page of
Title Page of
“When systems of institutional control are working without significant challenge, the authority of the knowledge embodied in the institutions seems similarly potent. When the institutions are attacked and then fragment, however, problems about knowledge and its legitimacy come to the fore. In such circumstances, skepticism about current systems of knowledge may flourish, for little about existing intellectual systems seems self-evidently satisfactory any more.” (Shapin, p. 124)
“The environment for these changes was what might be called a state of permanent crisis affecting European politics, society, and culture from the late medieval period through the seventeenth century.” (Shapin , p. 123)
and Its Evolution in the 17th Century
Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland.
Adam & Eve Driven from Paradise
Wednesday, May 5, 2348 BC
The Ark touched down on Mt. Ararat
Roman Empire; Birth of Christ 11:59:56pm
technology; emergence of global culture Now
Second New Year