Exporting to USA Phytosanitary Requirements Lindi Benic´ Manager: Trade/ Market Access Affairs DFPT- Research / South African Table Grape Industry (SATI)
Overview – Past and Present • May 2002 – USDA-APHIS, DoA, Plant Health (PH); industry meeting, focus re: pre-clearance matters re: USA Special Export Protocols for Deciduous & Citrus APHIS concerns/ actions for 2002/03/ future re: high phytosanitary pest interceptions Maintaining 3-strike principle, including 21 day running average/ 25% rejection limit /1st/ 20%/ 2ndyear, & immediate implementatiof MB fumigation or cessation of program • October 2002 - Pome / Table Grape Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) developed/ key pests (submitted via SAT/ SAAPPA to DPH), as part of 2002/03 USA work plan - to manage above(included production/ post-harvest pest control & monitoring, pre-filtering inspection by PPECB, prior to USDA-inspection, exporter self-regulation audit guideline & emergency procedure/ mandatory producer meetings Oct. 02) Awareness A4 worksheets & posters/ key phyto. pests printed/ provided to DoA/ PPECB inspectors; participating growers/ exporters, part of SOP’s • March 2003 - USDA-APHIS, DoA, PH; industry meeting re: Critical issues/ running average principle/ 03, Mealybug rejections/ pome fruit related ID; survey; MB fumigation projects initiated March 04 • September 2003 – USDA-APHIS accepted/ revised Table grape export protocol for 2003/04 including pre-clearance option/utilised by organic producers& option for fumigation on arrival/ USA, without pre-clearance(Process initiated due to difficulty to manage running average re: key phyto. pests) Highlights impacts - Phytosanitary non-compliance !!!
USA - Table Grape Exports Key Requirements 2004 - 2007
2004/ 05 – Table Grape Export requirements • USA special export programme- focus to Maintain Access !!!! • Table grape protocolincluded: Pre-clearance/ obligatory fumigation - on arrival/ US port of entry) options &in-transit cold-steri (re: fruit fly - 14 day) • Standard operating procedures (SOP’s) for key pests (part work plan) (Pear Leaf roller; Weevil; Fruit fly Mealybug) • DOA Registration / Pre-clearance option – Organic Table grapes • Pre-clearance - 21 day running average not exceeding 20 % rejection !!! (organic table grape exports) • Non-pre-clearance obligatory fumigation option (self-imposed pre-inspection procedure) • DOA, PH highlighted APHIS concerns re: phytosanitary pest interceptions over past seasons • List 6 most common quarantine pest interceptions provided to DOA during bilateral discussions with APHIS Sept.04 -APHIS requirement for GAP’s for key phytosanitary pests
Most common quarantine pests intercepted on Table Grapes in SA (October 2000 – September 2003) [received during bilateral discussions with APHIS, 28/09/2004]
Additional quarantine pests intercepted on Organic Table Grapes in SA in 2005 [USA 2005 - 10 Jan.05 – 24 Feb.05 interception data]
Related implications…!!! • May 2005 - USDA-APHIS, DOA, DPH, industry meeting ~ Focus FCM risk management / citrus, included FCM risk management / table grapes ~Particularly re: 2004/ 05 pre-cleared organic grape interceptions, including FCM / related need for system/ GAP requirements, suspension of organic programme/extended cold-steri for FCM • Changes to 2005/ 06 SA grape export program - USDA-APHIS letter Sept. 05 Due to 4 FCM interceptions since 2001 / high interceptions other pests in 04/ 05 pre-clearance program APHIS now considers grapes host of FCM- adoption 22 day cold treatment for FCM & fruit fly !!! Applicable to pre-cleared organic & fumigated grapes !!!! ~ Organic grape pre-clearance 21 day running average period reduced to 14 days due to unacceptable insect interceptions during 04/ 05, rejections reached 31.62 % exceeding 20 % - program suspension !!! APHIS required SA organic grape producers initiate system/ GAP’s to control key pests intercepted, re: SA organic grape imports being reinstated ~ Sampling in duplicate Highlights critical need to ensure Phytosanitary compliance to avoid related impacts - other special programs eg. China Table Grape Protocol – 22 day !!!
2005/ 06/ 07 - Export requirements… • USA special export programmefocus to Maintain Access (non-organic SA grape exports to USA ) re: organic programme is reinstated !!!! • Table grape protocol : Pre-clearance/ obligatory fumigation option (on arrival in US port of entry) &in-transit cold-steri extended 22 day cold treatment for FCM & fruit fly, applicable to pre-cleared organic & fumigated grapes DOA Registration required – Organic Grapes (audit by DOA as part of system) • Pre-clearance - 14 day running average - organic table grape exports • USDA-APHIS require GAP protocols for key phyto pests/ FCM concern !!! • Required system/GAP’s - organic grape exports to be reinstated !!! • Includes Packhouse requirements to manage certain key pests • Two Biometric samples for inspection – organic grapes (i) DoA (ii) DoA/ USDA
2007 - Export requirements… • Alternate to 22 day non-pre-clearance option requirement submitted to USDA-APHIS by DoA, PH on behalf of Table Grape IndustryEarly 2007 (Written request) DOA Registration & Inspection by DoA • Consignment sampled / inspected by DoA, APIS Phytosanitary certificate issued FCM-free • Cold-steri - Medfly – 14 day • Port of Entry Obligatory Fumigation (existing requirements) • USDA-APHIS – response awaited ex. APHIS ~ DoA (MHolthauzen) confirmed ~ USDA-APHIS letter received by Dr Visser, DoA, PH ~ Requesting info. re: distribution of FCM in North
USA – Pome Fruit Exports Key Requirements
2004 - 07 – Pome Export requirements • USA special export programme- focus to Maintain Access !!!! • Pome Fruit protocolincludes: Pre-clearance &in-transit cold-steri (re: fruit fly - 14 day) • Standard operating procedures (SOP’s) for key pests(part work plan) (Banded fruit weevil/ apples; Grain Cinch Bug/ pears;Cotton Stainers/ pome;Mealybugs/ pome) • DOA Registration • Pre-clearance - 21 day running average not exceeding 20 % rejection !!! (Pears – 2007/ running average - 0%/ 100% pass rate; Apples no exports re: fruit size)
GAP Management /Application Phytosanitary Pests
USA – ORGANIC TABLE GRAPES Key phytosanitary pests requiring GAP’s on Table Grapes in SA (refer GAP documents for further details)
CHINA – TABLE GRAPE PROTOCOL Quarantine pests of concern to China requiring GAP’s (Annex 1: 1.- 9. - refer relevant GAP documents for details)
General Principles for Pest Management of Key Phytosanitary Pests • Apply relevantGAP’s / SOP’s/ other – manage pest thresholds ~ Effective Pest Monitoring (Trapping/ Physical / other) ~ Effective pest managenent - in orchard/ vineyard ~ Effective pest managemet - Packhouse/ during transporation – NB. Hitchhikers/ contaminants ~ Effective sanitation – orchard/ vineyard/ packhouse / other ~ Cultural control – when applicable ~ Apply sound IPM principles where possible ENSURE MRL Compliance - Methomyl use!!! Table grapes/ pears - EU Rapid Alert Notification • Maintain Records ~ Monitoring / trapping records/ counts ~ Scouting records when threshold levels reached ~ Dates lures/ traps changed ~ Treatments applied – chemical/ other ~ Other • Ensure Traceability
Phytosanitary Research Priorities • Current Priorities ~ Effect of Methyl bromide fumigation on quality - table grapes; pome ~ Effect of irradiation on quality - table grapes; pome ~ Testing diff. phyto. pests utilising diff. treatments - table grapes; pome ~ Control of pear leaf roller on table grapes ~ Monitoring FCM in table grape regions ~ Survey of chinch bugs in Western Cape orchards (pome) ~ Pest-risk analysis of fruit fly introductions (Bactocerainvadens; B. spp.) & assessment of current fruit fly management practices