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Stream Development. 100 Aker Wood.

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100 aker wood
100 Aker Wood

By the time it came to the edge of the Forest the stream had grown up, so that it was almost a river, and, being grown-up, it did not run and jump and sparkle along as it used to do when it was younger, but moved more slowly.

For it knew now where it was going, and it

said to itself, "There is no

hurry. We shall get there

some day."

But all the little streams higher up in the Forest went this way and that, quickly, eagerly, having so much to find out before it was too late.
stages of stream development

Stages of Stream Development

young streams
Young Streams:

-steep slope/gradient

-high velocity

-down cutting erosion

narrow and v shaped valley
Narrow and V-Shaped Valley


More Mature…

Letchworth Gorge- Genesee River

mature streams
Mature Streams
  • flood plain develops
  • lower slope/gradient
  • meanders (bends) form

meanders of the keve river angola as it crosses its broad flood plain
Meanders of the Keve River, Angola as it crosses its broad flood plain.

deep water on outside of meander curve
Deep water on outside of meander curve
old age streams
Old Age Streams

erosion and deposition along a meander
Erosion and Deposition along a meander,dep,meander_western_wy.jpg


OLD Streams

-low slope/gradient

-very wide channel and floodplain

-abundant meanders




oxbow lakes form
Oxbow Lakes Form


point bar
Point bar



do now factors that cause deposition
DO NOW: Factors that cause deposition
  • If velocity of a stream or river decreases, what will happen to the sediment that the stream or river is carrying?
  • What happened to the kinetic energy?

Is sediment of mixed sizes sorted by streams as kinetic energy decreases and velocity slows?

  • the process of dropping material as kinetic energy of an erosional agent decreases
factors causing deposition
Factors causing deposition
  • Deposition occurs when the velocity of speed of an erosional agent decreases
  • Two Factors
    • The velocity of the erosional system
    • The characteristics of the sediments
velocity of an erosional system and the rate of deposition
Velocity of an Erosional System and the rate of deposition
  • As velocity decreases, particles are deposited in order of their size
  • In a fast stream all particles will be suspended…as it slows down the particles will be deposited in order (from large to small)
characteristics of sediment and the rate of deposition
Characteristics of Sediment and the rate of deposition
  • Size- the larger the sediment the faster the rate of deposition
  • Shape- the mope spherical the sediment the faster the rate of deposition
  • Density- the greater the density the faster the rate of depostion
do now

1. The block diagram below shows a displacement of rock layers.Which process describes the downward sliding of the rock material?

A) tidal changes B) glacial erosion C) mass movement D) lava flow 

2. Create a graph that demonstrates the relationship between the distance from a river delta into the ocean and the average size of sediments deposited on the ocean floor.

Try to describe the relationship.

  • the process of dropping material as kinetic energy of an erosional agent decreases

Stream Deposition Occurs In Areas:

1. at widening rivers

2. on the inside of a curve of a meandering stream

3. at the mouth of stream/river that flows into a larger body of water

As kinetic energy ______________, water velocity _____________.

horizontal sorting
Horizontal Sorting
  • Horizontal sorting- As water slows gradually, smaller and smaller particles drop out causing
  • Gradual

decrease in


Sorting Animation

McDougal Sorting Animation

vertical sorting
Vertical Sorting
  • Occurs when water velocity decreases suddenly
  • Examples:

-Flash flooding

-Spring thaw

-frozen ground does not allow for snow melt or rain water to penetrate soil which leads to increased runoff into streams/rivers

graded bedding
Graded Bedding
  • From repeated sorting events
  • Ex. Annual (yearly) spring thaws
    • Seasonal melting of glaciers
do now50

Billy Hill


Velocity = 150 cm/s

Sizes carried:

Sizes deposited:

Lake Floyd


Velocity = 50 cm/s

Sizes carried:

Sizes deposited:


Velocity = 10 cm/s

Sizes carried:

Sizes deposited:

  • Please take out Deposition in Streams Questions

How do size, shape and density affect the settling times of sediment?

How do size, shape and density affect settling (deposition) rates of sediment?