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Personality Assessment Inventory ™ (PAI ® ). Leslie C. Morey, PhD Texas A&M University. PAI. Self-administered, objective inventory of adult personality Provides information on critical clinical variables. PAI Scales. 344 items Comprising 22 nonoverlapping full scales 4 Validity scales

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personality assessment inventory pai

Personality Assessment Inventory™ (PAI®)

Leslie C. Morey, PhD

Texas A&M University

slide2
PAI
  • Self-administered, objective inventory of adult personality
  • Provides information on critical clinical variables
pai scales
PAI Scales
  • 344 items
  • Comprising 22 nonoverlapping full scales
  • 4 Validity scales
  • 11 Clinical scales
  • 5 Treatment Consideration scales
  • 2 Interpersonal scales
applications of the pai
Applications of the PAI
  • PAI developed and standardized on a sample of adults ages 18 years and older
  • Written at a 4th grade reading level
  • 344 items take approximately 50 minutes to complete
overview of pai administration and scoring
Overview of PAI Administration and Scoring
  • PAI is easy to administer and score
  • Can be administered by technicians who are trained in the administration of self-report tools
pai critical items
PAI Critical Items
  • 27 Critical Items on the PAI
  • Critical Items are identified as indicators of potential crisis situations and have very low endorsement in normal sample
  • Critical Items facilitate follow-up questioning
general interpretation
General Interpretation
  • Interpretation should only be performed by professionals trained in the interpretation of psychological tests
  • Interpretive guidelines are provided in the Professional Manual
  • Interpretive software is also availablethat provides a comprehensiveindividualized report
test materials for the pai
Test Materials for the PAI
  • Item Booklet contains the test items
  • Answer Sheets: Form HS (Hand-Scorable) and Form SS (Scannable)
  • Profile Forms available for adults and for college students
development of the pai
Development of the PAI
  • Based on a construct validation framework emphasizing rational as well as quantitative framework
  • Strong emphasis on the development and selection of items
  • Nonoverlapping nature of scales is critical
development of the pai cont d
Development of the PAI (cont’d)
  • Ten steps in the development of the PAI:
      • Test users surveyed, literature reviewed, and current diagnostic schemas used to develop item content
      • Scale content areas defined
      • Scale and subscales selected
development of the pai cont d11
Development of the PAI (cont’d)
  • Development of initial 2,200 items
  • Reduction of item pool to 1,086 items based on research team ratings
  • Review by external bias panel and expert judges reduced item pool to 776 items
  • Alpha version (776 items) analyzed
development of the pai cont d12
Development of the PAI (cont’d)
  • Item deletions and revisions to produce a 597-item beta version
  • Beta version tested and analyses conducted
  • Standardization version (344 items) produced following further reliability and validity analyses
reliability
Reliability
  • Variety of internal consistency alphas across three samples (1,000 normative; 1,051 college student; 1,246 clinical)
  • Median alphas for full scales are .81, .82, and .86 for the normative, college, and clinical samples, respectively
reliability cont d
Reliability (cont’d)
  • Median test-retest reliability across all three samples was .83
  • Mean absolute T-score change tended to be 2 to 3 T-score points for most full scales
validity
Validity
  • Four Validity scales built into PAI
  • Inconsistency and Infrequency assess deviation from conscientious responding
  • Negative Impression and Positive Impression assess impression management
validity cont d
Validity (cont’d)
  • 1,000 computer-generated random response protocols were compared against profiles from the three subsamples and there was marked separation
  • Fake-good and fake-bad studies also conducted on a sample of 90 adults
validity cont d17
Validity (cont’d)
  • Comparison of fake-good and fake-bad profiles to those from the normal and clinical samples revealed clear separation
  • Response set studies also conducted using 1,000 computer-generated profiles for each response set type
validity cont d18
Validity (cont’d)
  • These simulation studies suggest that the Validity scales would capture a large majority of invalid protocols
pai sp clinical reports
PAI-SP Clinical Reports
  • PAI-SP software generates PAI Clinical Reports from on-screen PAI administration or hand-entry of item responses or raw scores from a PAI paper-and-pencil administration
  • Clinical Report includes PAI full-scale and subscale profiles
pai clinical report full scale profile
PAI Clinical Report Full Scale Profile
  • Includes all 22 nonoverlapping scales
  • 4 Validity scales: ICN, INF, NIM, and PIM
  • 11 Clinical scales: SOM, ANX, ARD,DEP, MAN, PAR, SCZ, BOR, ANT,ALC, and DRG
  • 5 Treatment Consideration scales: AGG, SUI, STR, NON, and RXR
  • 2 Interpersonal scales: DOM and WRM
pai clinical report subscale profile
PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile
  • Includes nine Clinical scales and one Treatment Consideration scale with their respective subscales
  • Somatic Complaints: SOM-C, SOM-S,and SOM-H
  • Anxiety: ANX-C, ANX-A, and ANX-P
  • Anxiety-Related Disorders: ARD-O, ARD-P, and ARD-T
pai clinical report subscale profile cont d
PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d)
  • Depression: DEP-C, DEP-A, and DEP-P
  • Mania: MAN-A, MAN-G, and MAN-I
  • Paranoia: PAR-H, PAR-P, and PAR-R
  • Schizophrenia: SCZ-P, SCZ-S, and SCZ-T
  • Borderline Features: BOR-A, BOR-I, BOR-N, and BOR-S
pai clinical report subscale profile cont d25
PAI Clinical Report Subscale Profile (cont’d)
  • Antisocial Features: ANT-A, ANT-E,and ANT-S
  • Aggression: AGG-A, AGG-V, and AGG-P
selected pai references
Selected PAI References
  • Morey, L. C. (1991). Personality Assessment Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Morey, L. C. (1996). An interpretive guide to the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Morey, L. C. (2007). Personality Assessment Inventory professional manual (2nd ed.). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  • Morey, L. C., & Hopwood, C. J. (2007). Casebook for the Personality Assessment Inventory: A structural summary approach. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.