Dale Pietrzak, Ed.D. LPC-MH, CCMHC Basic Personality Inventory Introduction: Administration, Scoring and Interpretation for Hand Scoring
Seems OK ... BPI Overview • 240 Items • Counterbalanced True and False Items for all but the deviation Scale • Easily hand scored in 10 minutes • Good Response Set detection in computer scored report • Ages 12 through Adult
Hand Scoring • 1 key for the 12 main scales • Total number of marked responses for each half of each scale • 1 Balanced desirability scale • Total number of True responses for inventory I think I can do that!
Adult Norms Marital % Single 16.7 Married 67.6 Widowed 7.2 Divorced 6.8 Region% N East 30.6 SE & SC 14.8 N Central 28.2 Pac. & Mtn. 26.4 Age % 19-20 3.6 21-30 26.6 31-40 22.0 41-50 14.0 51-60 15.0 61-65 8.3 66+ 10.5 Occupation% Mang. & Professional 36.4 Sales & Adm. Support 33.2 Skilled Workers 12.4 Service Workers 6.6 Semi-Skilled Wrks. 7.2 Unskilled Wrks. 3.9
Adolescent Norms • n = 2210: 880 Males and 1380 Females • Based on pooled samples of 2 Canadian providences • Stratified Random Sample • Sex, Age, Rural-urban & Social Class • Only sex showed significant differences Who cares?
Reliability of BPI: Adult Test-Retest Stability:1 Month HoldenKilduff Median Hypocondrisis .74 .73 .74 Depression .85 .85 .85 Denial .67 .63 .65 Interpersonal Problems .82 .77 .80 Alienation .81 .77 .79 Persecutory Ideas .71 .78 .75 Anxiety .75 .78 .77 Thinking Disorder .64 .71 .68 Impulse Expression .78 .78 .78 Social Introversion .82 .87 .85 Self Depreciation .62 .77 .70 Deviation .70 .69 .70
Internal Consistency: Adult NormalPsychiatric KR-20 Alpha Hypocondrisis .80 .82 Depression .83 .86 Denial .69 .69 Interpersonal Problems .70 .74 Alienation .63 .75 Persecutory Ideas .74 .81 Anxiety .78 .77 Thinking Disorder .65 .78 Impulse Expression .68 .74 Social Introversion .77 .81 Self Depreciation .61 .82 Deviation .63 .55
Reliability of BPI: Adolescent KR-20 Internal Consistency Hypocondrisis .77 Depression .80 Denial .61 Interpersonal Problems .72 Alienation .72 Persecutory Ideas .73 Anxiety .57 Thinking Disorder .72 Impulse Expression .74 Social Introversion .79 Self Depreciation .73 Deviation .66 Blah Blah Why do I have to learn this?
Standard Error of Measurement ConsistencyConsistency StabilityAdult Adoles. Hypocondrisis 5.1 4.3 4.8 Depression 3.9 3.9 4.5 Denial 5.9 5.6 6.2 Interpersonal Problems 4.5 5.3 5.3 Alienation 4.6 5.6 5.3 Persecutory Ideas 5.0 4.7 5.2 Anxiety 4.8 4.7 6.6 Thinking Disorder 5.7 5.3 5.3 Impulse Expression 4.7 5.4 5.1 Social Introversion 3.9 4.6 4.6 Self Depreciation 5.5 5.3 5.2 Deviation 5.5 6.4 5.8 Mean: 4.9 4.7 5.3
Basic Interpretation • Uses linear T-scores • 70 or higher indicates a clinical elevation • approximately the 97th percentile • 60 to 69 has elements of scale • approximately the 85th percentile • 50 or less generally has positive aspects of scale
Interpretation Continued • 65-74 minimal to milder symptoms. • 75 or more moderate to severe symptoms. • May have “normal” people score in clinical ranges. • Need to know history. • Need to be able to abstract more “normal” displays to very severe displays for each scale • Clinical judgment is required
BPI Response Set Detection • Balanced Desirability (Adult) • 19 or more Fake Good • 8 or less Fake Bad • Total Number of True Responses (Adult) • 153 or more “True” response set • 77 or less “False” response set • Denial Scale over 70 with lower scores on other scales • Denial of Symptoms
BPI Response Set Detection • Deviation over 70 with other scales high • Infrequent symptom pattern • Random raw scores of 10 2 on almost all scales • Hand scored infrequency and consistency scales under construction Admit it !
Content Categories A. Social Deviation/Inadequate Socialization - Interpersonal Problems - Alienation - Impulse Expression B. Mood Personal/Emotional Adjustment - Depression - Anxiety - Hypochondriasis C. Cognitive Functioning - Thinking Disorder - Persecutory Ideas D. Self-Perception & Sociability - Self Depreciation - Social Introversion Correctional Scales E. Critical Deviant Behaviors - Deviation F. Guardedness - Denial
Higher Order Factor Scales • Psychiatric Symptomology • Hypochondriasis, Persecutory Ideas, Anxiety, Thinking Disorder and Deviation • Social Symptomology • Interpersonal Problems, Alienation, Persecutory Ideas, Impulse Expression and Deviation • Depression • Depression, Self-Depreciation & Social Introversion
Hypochondriasis Intended: Identify those with physical symptoms which are either caused psychologically, or exaggerated psychologically. Less than 50 Is without excessive bodily concern or preoccupation with physical complaints. Absenteeism due to illness is below average. 60-69 Many with real physical conditions score in this range. 70+ Frequently concerned about being ill. Complains regularly of peculiar pains or bodily dysfunctions. Discusses such topics frequently, revealing a preoccupation with such complaints.
Depression Intended: To identify those who have the cognitive, affective and some physical symptoms of depression. 49 or less reports a usual feeling of confidence, cheerfulness, and persistence, even when experiencing disappointment. Has an optimistic attitude about the future. 70+ Is inclined to be down-hearted and show extreme despondency; considers self to be inadequate; may be listless, remote, and preoccupied; looks at the future pessimistically.
Denial Intended: To identify those who are guarded or denying symptoms. Less than 50 Accepts feelings as part of self. Is not afraid to discuss unpleasant topics. Can answer questions about self frankly; avoids impression management. Shows normal affect. Reasonably insightful. 70+ Lacks insight into feelings and the causes of own behavior. Avoids unpleasant, exciting or violent topics. relatively unresponsive emotionally. Questionable validity, especially if clinical scales are lower than expected.
Interpersonal Problems Intended: To identify those who have difficulty getting along with others. Especially due to irritability and oppositional styles. 49 or less Reasonably cooperative. Experiences less than average irritation from their environment and others. Handles noises, interruptions, changes in routine, disappointments, others mistakes and authority reasonably well. Prefers clearly defined rules and regulations; able to handle criticism. 70+ Is often extremely annoyed by little inconveniences, frustrations, or disappointments; uncooperative, disobedient, resistant to others, and reacts against discipline, rules and criticism.
Alienation Intended: To identify those with asocial, or personalized standards of right and wrong. Less than 50 Ordinarily displays socially acceptable ethical attitudes and is socially responsible. Reports feeling a sense of obligation toward society and its laws (conscience). 70+ Expresses attitudes markedly different from common social codes; is prone to depart from the truth and behave in an unethical/illegal and untrustworthy manner; feels little or no guilt about behavior.
Persecutory Ideas Intended: To identify those who have paranoid ideation. 49 or less Trust others and does not feel threatened. Accepts responsibility for the events in life and does not attribute maliciousness to others. 70+ Believes that certain people are hostile and are trying to make life difficult and/or unpleasant. Inclined to brood. Distrusts others.
Anxiety Intended: To identify those who have the cognitive and affective symptoms of anxiety. Emotional reactivity. Less than 50 Remains calm, unruffled and not worried even when confronted by unexpected occurrences. Takes things as they come without fear or apprehension. Maintains personal control even in crisis situations. 70+ Easily scared and worrisome. Little things, even an idea, can cause a frenzy of anxiety. Afraid of physical or interpersonal danger.
Thinking Disorder Intended: To identify those with problems with reality testing and difficulties with distractibility and/or concentration. 49 or less Has no difficulty with reality testing. Has no difficulty distinguishing daydreams from reality. Is able to concentrate and maintain sensible conversations. 70+ Is markedly confused, distractible and cognitively disorganized. cannot remember simple things from day to day. reports feeling that life is dream-like, and that there is a marked difference between self and others (sees self as different from others-odd).
Impulse Expression Intended: To identify impulsive, hedonistic minded responses. Sensation seeking and risky behaviors. Less than 50 Appears to be even-tempered and level headed; considers the future and consequences before acting; generally has the patience to cope with lengthy and tedious tasks. Persistence. 70+ Lacks the ability to think beyond the present and consider the consequences of action; is prone to undertake risky and reckless actions; inclined to behave irresponsibly; finds routine tasks boring.
Social Introversion Intended: To identify people who avoid others either due to disinterest, fear or withdrawal. 49 or less Enjoys company and being with others. Likes to talk and knows many people. Spends time with others, seeks others out. 70+ Avoids people generally. Has few friends, or is withdrawing from friends. Says little to others, even friends. Seems to be uncomfortable when around others. Prefers to keep to self or asocial activities.
Self Depreciation Intended: To identify those who are negative and/or self- depreciating. Poor self-esteem. Less than 50 Manifests a high degree or self-assurance in dealing with others. Not afraid to meet strangers; speaks with confidence about a variety of topics; believes in own abilities and that he/she can accomplish things. 70+ Degrades self as being worthless, unpleasant, and undeserving. Generally expresses a low opinion of self and refuses credit for any accomplishment.
Deviation Intended: To identify unusual response styles and behavior patterns which are very pathological. 49 or less Generally shows behavior patterns similar to those of a majority of people. Tends to be free from unusual symptoms and modes of thought. 70+ Displays behavior patterns very different from most people’s. admits to unusual and pathological characteristics. If elevated with most other scales watch for “fake bad.”
Empirical Scale Combinations: Adults • Hallucinations: • Thinking Disorder with Persecutory Ideas (lower depression) • Delusions: • Persecutory Ideas with Alienation and Thinking Disorders (lower depression) • Mania: • Impulse Expression with Denial & Hypochondrias
E-Scale Combinations Con’t • Depression: • Depression with Self Depreciation and Anxiety • Anxiety: • Anxiety with Depression and Hypochondrias (lower Alienation) • Somatic Complaints: • Depression, Hypochondrias and self-depreciation with Anxiety and Persecutory Ideas
E-Scale Combinations Con’t • Insomnia • Social Introversion with Self Depreciation and lower Alienation • Anorexia • Lower Alienation and Interpersonal Problems with lower Thinking Disorder and Lower Persecutory Ideas
E-Scale Combinations Con’t • Assaultive Behavior • Interpersonal Problems with Alienation and Persecutory Ideas • Alcoholism (In Treatment) • Moderate elevations on Interpersonal Problems, Hypochondrias, depression, Alienation, Social Introversion (Lower Denial)
E-Scale Combinations Con’t • Drug Abuse (In Treatment) • Alienation, Interpersonal Problems and Deviation (Impulse Expression) with Lower Denial • Suicidal Behavior • Depression with Deviation, Self depreciation, Anxiety and Social Introversion • Neuroticism • Hypochondrias, Anxiety, Social Introversion
Empirical Patterns: Adolescents • Pattern 1: Mental Health Difficulties • Depression, Anxiety, Self depreciation and Deviation • Higher the elevation the worse adjusted • Pattern 2: Interpersonal Maladjustment • Interpersonal Problems, Persecutory Ideas, and Impulse Expression • Rebellious and anti-establishment (More oppositional)
Adolescent Patterns Continued • Pattern 3: Antisocial Delinquency • Alienation, Interpersonal Problems and Impulse Expression • Pattern 4: Defensive Denial (offenders) • Denial other normal to low • Females Persecutory Ideas common-indicates feeling unfairly treated Leave me alone!
Adolescent Patterns Continued • Pattern 5: Performance Anxiety resulting in Somatic Complaints (Neurotic) • Hypochondrias, Anxiety, and Social Introversion • Pattern 6: High risk Rebelliousness • Depression, Anxiety, Self Depreciation, Interpersonal Problems, Alienation, Impulse Expression, and Deviation
Scale Defense Mechanisms • Hypochondrias: Repression & Denial • Depression: Rationalization • Denial: Denial & Repression • InterpersonalProblems: Projection, Blocking • Alienation: Projection, Blocking • PersecutoryIdeas: Projection and other blame
Scale Defense Mechanisms • Anxiety: Rationalization • Thinking Disorder: Distancing, Disassociation, Blocking • Impulse Expression: Ignoring, Rationalization • Social Introversion: Withdrawal, Escape • Self-Depreciation: Self-Blame, Giving up
Other Scale Interactions • Interpret how the various scales interact with each other • No established guidelines: Intuitive Clinical Judgment
Hum ... Interpretation Process • Investigate Validity and Distortion • Factor Scale Interpretation • Content Category Interpretation • Empirical Patterns • Specific Scale Interpretations & Scale Interactions