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Lesson 2 Exploring Data with Graphs Learn …. The Different Types of Data The Use of Graphs to Describe Data Section 2.1 What are the Types of Data? In Every Statistical Study: Questions are posed Characteristics are observed Characteristics are Variables

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lesson 2 exploring data with graphs
Lesson 2Exploring Data with Graphs
  • Learn ….

The Different Types of Data

The Use of Graphs to Describe

Data

section 2 1
Section 2.1

What are the Types of Data?

in every statistical study
In Every Statistical Study:
  • Questions are posed
  • Characteristics are observed
characteristics are variables
Characteristics are Variables

A Variable is any characteristic that is recorded for subjects in the study

variation in data
Variation in Data
  • The terminology variablehighlights the fact that data values vary.
example students in a statistics class
Example: Students in a Statistics Class
  • Variables:
    • Age
    • GPA
    • Major
    • Smoking Status
data values are called observations
Data values are called observations
  • Each observation can be:
    • Quantitative
    • Categorical
categorical variable
Categorical Variable
  • Each observation belongs to one of a set of categories
  • Examples:
    • Gender (Male or Female)
    • Religious Affiliation (Catholic, Jewish, …)
    • Place of residence (Apt, Condo, …)
    • Belief in Life After Death (Yes or No)
quantitative variable
Quantitative Variable
  • Observations take numerical values
  • Examples:
    • Age
    • Number of siblings
    • Annual Income
    • Number of years of education completed
graphs and numerical summaries
Graphs and Numerical Summaries
  • Describe the main features of a variable
  • For Quantitative variables: key features are center and spread
  • For Categorical variables: key feature is the percentage in each of the categories
quantitative variables
Quantitative Variables
  • Discrete Quantitative Variables

and

  • Continuous Quantitative Variables
discrete
Discrete
  • A quantitative variable is discrete if its possible values form a set of separate numbers such as 0, 1, 2, 3, …
examples of discrete variables
Examples of discrete variables
  • Number of pets in a household
  • Number of children in a family
  • Number of foreign languages spoken
continuous
Continuous
  • A quantitative variable is continuous if its possible values form an interval
examples of continuous variables
Examples of Continuous Variables
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Age
  • Amount of time it takes to complete an assignment
frequency table
Frequency Table
  • A method of organizing data
  • Lists all possible values for a variable along with the number of observations for each value
example shark attacks18
Example: Shark Attacks

Example: Shark Attacks

  • What is the variable?
  • Is it categorical or quantitative?
  • How is the proportion for Florida calculated?
  • How is the % for Florida calculated?
slide19
Example: Shark Attacks
  • Insights – what the data tells us about shark attacks
identify the following variable as categorical or quantitative
Identify the following variable as categorical or quantitative:

Choice of diet

(vegetarian or non-vegetarian):

  • Categorical
  • Quantitative
slide21
Identify the following variable as categorical or quantitative:

Number of people you have known who have been elected to political office:

  • Categorical
  • Quantitative
identify the following variable as discrete or continuous
Identify the following variable as discrete or continuous:

The number of people in line at a box office to purchase theater tickets:

  • Continuous
  • Discrete
section 2 2
Section 2.2

How Can We Describe Data Using Graphical Summaries?

graphs for categorical data
Graphs for Categorical Data
  • Pie Chart: A circle having a “slice of pie” for each category
  • Bar Graph: A graph that displays a vertical bar for each category
pie chart vs bar chart
Pie Chart vs. Bar Chart
  • Which graph do you prefer?
  • Why?
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