Can you figure out the next symbol in this series?. History of Microbiology. First Epidemics. Were Possibly Waterborne Infected Caveman Contaminating Water Supply People Had No Real Understanding of Why Disease Occurred. Growth of Epidemics. Isolated Groups / Sporadic Disease Episodes
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Trepanation is the oldest surgical procedure practiced by mankind.
It is the act of cutting of hole in one's skull to allow your brain better access to blood flow and to 'awaken ancient parts of the brain'.
High Success Rate!
According to John Verano, a professor of anthropology at Tulane University, trepanation is the oldest surgical practice and is still performed ceremonially by some African tribes. A trepanned skull found in France was dated at about 5,000 BC. About 1,000 trepanned skulls from Peru and Bolivia date from 500 B.C. to the 16th century.
Feeling depressed? Lethargic? Shell-shocked by life's little bombardments? You could try meditation. Or yoga. Or color therapy. Or herbal remedies. Or, if you prefer drastic measures, you could drill a hole in your head.
Bart H. a medical school graduate who has never practiced medicine except for a bit of self-surgery, believes that trepanation is the way to higher consciousness. He wanted to be a psychiatrist but failed the obstetrics exam and so never went into practice. In 1965, after years of experimentation with LSD, cannabis and other drugs, Dr. H. realized that the way to enlightenment was by boring a hole in his skull. He used an electric drill, a scalpel, and a hypodermic needle (to administer a local anesthetic). The operation took him 45 minutes. How does it feel to be enlightened? "I feel like I did when I was 4," says H.
This weekend I had a hole drilled through my skull. I read that this increased one’s consciousness permanently. I read about the supposed de-conditioning properties. I read about more parts of the brain working simultaneously as there would be more blood up there to help this happen. The arguments for it all seemed to be quite lengthy, quite detailed, thought out and researched, and very intelligent. The arguments against it were based solely on the opinion that it is ‘crazy’ and talk like, "What’s more conscious than conscious?". I heard from an acquaintance on telephone that she was glad she had done it, felt more mental energy, and had days of brilliance. I came to believe that the key to a permanent consciousness increase was a hole in the skull, to restore the full brain pulsation of infancy. After several months of research, discussion, speculation, watching surgical videos and trepanation documentaries, and even an actual viewing of a trepanation, I decided I certainly did want to be trepanned, and sought a way to do it.
Toilets and Sewers
Public Toilets and Baths
Piped Water Supplies
Ancient Greeks Carried Waste From Their Homes in Pots and Used It to Fertilize Fields
1. Anything Flushed, Poured, or Dumped
1. Wastes from homes to chemical industries to
1. Heavy Metals
2. Industrial Compounds
5. Drug Residues
Hundreds of people have fallen ill after being exposed to sewage sludge fertilizer--suffering such symptoms as respiratory distress, headaches, nausea, rashes, reproductive complications, cysts, and tumors.
Roman Sanitation advanced to public toilets where they sat next to each other on a stone bench. They used and shared a sponge on a stick stuck in a bottle of salt water, because they didn't have toilet paper.
The walls of the toilet were painted with pictures of Roman gods. The gods of smell, Stercutius and Crepitus and the goddess of the sewers, Cloacina.
The sewage from public toilets was emptied into gutters in the street, or buried in pits.
Motivated by concerns of esthetics, comfort, and convenience. They wanted a pleasant existence, but there is little evidence that they understood the connection between sanitation and disease control.
Occupied 100’s and 1000’s of bathers at a time. But without filtration or circulation systems, the bathers basked in germ-ridden water and the huge pools had to be emptied and refilled daily.
“This led to the Dark Ages. One Thousand Years of Sicknesses and Plagues of Unbridled Virulence, Fanned by Fleas and Mosquitoes, Excrement and Filth, Stagnant and Contaminated Water of Every Description”
The Black Death: "Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them the people quickly drove the Italians from their city. However, the disease remained, and soon death was every where. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian burial." Author Unknown
Hythe Ossuary: remains of Black Death victims
Anne Dacre, Countess of Arundel (1557-1638) was a noted lay medical practitioner and herbalist whose recipes are found in many seventeenth century compilations. This recipe for a pomander that would protect against the plague comes from her own collection of recipes, held in the Main Manuscript series. Reference: MS.213
Quarantine (from the Italian quarentina, meaning forty days for the time of isolation of ships entering harbor which were suspected of carrying some form of contagion) is only somewhat effective at the outset of an outbreak. In the fourteenth century, Milan, Florence, and Venice employed quarantines with a vengeance. The homes of sufferers were sealed—well and sick left to die for lack of food and water. Of course, the human residents of such dwellings were constrained, while the rats could come and go as they pleased. Even rats aboard docked quarantined ships had easy egress, because they could climb down the mooring ropes and onto the docks.
Flag Flown From
- Flu and Pneumonia
- Gastric Infections (Diarrhea)
- Heart Disease
Mold and Bacterial Colonies were observed, but the organisms that caused the disease were still invisible.
In 1665, a physicist named Robert Hooke used one of the first microscopes to look more closely at the living world. A slice of cork caught his eye. Looking at thousands of tiny chambers, Hooke termed these structures cells because they reminded him of the rooms in a monastery.
Change Came Slowly Because the Public Assumed That The People They Admired Were Experts
The Royal Society is the world’s oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, and has been at the forefront of enquiry and discovery since its foundation in 1660. There are currently more than 65 Nobel Laureates amongst the Society’s approximately 1300 Fellows and Foreign Members. Throughout its history, the Society has promoted excellence in science through its Fellowship, which has included Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein, Dorothy Hodgkin, Francis Crick, James Watson and Stephen Hawking.
The coat-of-arms of the Royal Society as a stained-glass window. The motto is 'Nullius in verba'.
Originally Used by the Poor. Later became Centers of Physician Training.
Vienna Maternity Ward
The idea that life routinely arises from non-life was supported by Aristotle.
Where do maggots come from? Do they form by Spontaneous Generation
Hypothesis: Maggots come from flies.
Redi put meat into three separate jars.
Jar 1 was left open Jar 2 was covered with netting
Jar 3 was sealed from the outside
Left open Maggots developed
Flies were observed laying eggs on the meat in the open jar
Covered with netting Maggots appeared on the netting
Flies were observed laying eggs on the netting
Sealed No maggots developed
Where do the microbes come from to cause broth to decay. Hypothesis: Microbes come from cells of organisms on dust particles in the air; not the air itself.
Pasteur put broth into several special S-shaped flasks
Each flask was boiled and placed at various locations
Developed Antiseptic Surgery
Sterilized with Heat
Swabbed with Carbonic Acid
Reduced Post Surgical Infections
Although the microscope was invented in the 1600’s, it took 200 years for scientists to discover its use in isolating and identifying specific microbes for a particular disease.
1 in 7 People Died from TB
The Second Question Had Been Answered!
Worked in Koch’s Lab doing Differential Staining
Speculated at a Chemical Might Selectively Target Specific Cells and Kill Them.
Developed the Discipline of Chemotherapy.
Noted that Mold Might Kill Bacteria
Early penicillin culture facility at the Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, England.