CUBISM • Cubism was an art movement in France that lasted from 1908 to 1918 and beyond. • It was started by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
CUBISM • At the beginning of the 20th century, Braque and Picasso were not interested in showing traditional realism—illusionism—by using realistic perspective as had been done in the past. Meditation, 1885 William Bouguereau
CUBISM • Braque and Picasso were influenced by Paul Cezanne, who simplified natural forms into spheres, cylinders, cubes, and cones . . . Rocky Landscape, 1887 Paul Cezanne
CUBISM • new scientific ideas about time and space, like Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity. . .
CUBISM • and multiple images and ‘flat’ perspective of photography. Running Full Speed, 1887Eadweard Muybridge
CUBISM • They were also influenced by the recent importation to Europe of African masks. Nuna Buffalo Mask
CUBISM • Cubists wanted to show objects as geometric shapes (like Cezanne), Little Harbor, 1909Georges Braque
CUBISM • from different angles at the same time (like scientific ideas about time and space at the beginning of the 20th century) . . . Woman with a Guitar, 1913 Pablo Picasso
CUBISM • and scenes as flat (like photography). Woman Seated, 1908 Pablo Picasso
CUBISM • Can you see the influence of African masks in Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon?
CUBISM • Cubism developed and changed over time: the first phase was Analytic Cubism. It is sometimes called ‘Facet Cubism’ because the subject and surrounding space is broken into facets, or pieces of separate surfaces (like a cut diamond).
CUBISM • Ambroise Vollard, painted in 1910 by Pablo Picasso, is an example of Analytic Cubism. Do you see the facets?
CUBISM • This is Portrait ofPicasso by Juan Gris. Portrait of Picasso, 1912Juan Gris (Spain)
CUBISM • While Analytic Cubism took forms apart, the next phase of Cubism—Synthetic Cubism—put forms together using collage and assemblage, which created questions about what’s illusion and what’s real. Still Life with Glass, Dice, Newspaper and Playing Card, 1913 Georges Braque
CUBISM • Picasso, Braque, and others continued to explore the ideas of Cubism. Synthetic Cubism included the addition of stenciling and lettering, and used vibrant colors, instead of the dark, limited color palette of Analytic Cubism. Still Life with a Poem, 1915 Juan Gris
CUBISM Insert picture here • What ideas do you see in this untitled work from 1915 by Picasso?
CUBISM • Cubism influenced many artists from all over the world . . . The Traveler, 1915 Liubov Popova (Russia)
CUBISM Street: Near the Palace, 1915 Lyonel Feininger (USA)
CUBISM • Cubism influenced a new movement in Italy called Futurism. Do you see Cubism’s influence? Unique Forms of Continuity, 1913 Umberto Boccioni
CUBISM • Who: Picasso, Braque, Gris • What: Cubism (Analytic Cubism & Synthetic Cubism) • When: 1908 – 1918 and beyond • Where: France; later in Europe, Russia, and USA • Why: To reject traditional perspective and explore ideas of time and space—show portraits, still life, and landscape from several angles at once; explore boundaries of illusion and what’s real • How: By breaking up the picture plane into facets, using geometric shapes, adding lettering, constructing collage and assemblage
Test Yourself: CUBISM What: Cubism (Analytic Cubism & Synthetic Cubism) • Who: Picasso, Braque, Gris When: 1908 – 1918 and beyond Where: France; later in Europe, Russia, and USA Why: To reject traditional perspective and explore ideas of time and space—show portraits, still life, and landscape from several angles at once; explore boundaries of illusion and what’s real How: By breaking up the picture plane into facets, using geometric shapes, adding lettering, constructing collage and assemblage