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Chapter 8: Genetic Engineering. by Mailee Phet My Hoa Nguyen.

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chapter 8 genetic engineering

Chapter 8:Genetic Engineering

by Mailee Phet

My Hoa Nguyen

slide2

What is gene therapy? It is possible that gene therapy given to an adult could reverse a genetic disease. If so, would that therapy also prevent any children the person had after gene therapy from inheriting the disease? Explain why or why not, and what factors the answer would depend on.

what is gene therapy
What is Gene Therapy?
  • The Human Genome Project may provide information that can be used to help replace genes that are defective or missing in people with genetic diseases
  • experimental technique using genes to prevent/ treat genetic diseases
    • replace a mutated gene with a healthy one
    • deactivating a gene that isn’t functioning properly
    • introduce a new gene in the body to help fight the disease

http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/therapy/genetherapy

germline gene therapy
Germline Gene Therapy
  • normal version of gene is inserted into germ cells
    • those germ cells will divide normal versions of the gene
    • any zygote produced as a result of this germ cell will have a correct version of the defective gene and will continue passing it on to their offspring

http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/gene_therapy.html

somatic cell gene therapy
Somatic Cell Gene Therapy
  • single defective cell taken out of an individual’s body
  • functional version of gene introduced into cell in a laboratory
    • cells reproduce
    • copies of cells with a corrected version of the gene is injected back into the patient
  • the good gene ends with the patient and is not inherited by their offspring
slide6
In 1990, a 4 year old girl named Ashi DiSilva was the first patient to receive gene therapy for SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency).
  • She became a healthy adult with an immune system that was able to fight off most infections.
however
However…
  • gene therapy is still in its early stages and is far from perfection
    • it can only be used in diseases caused by a single gene malfunction
      • many diseases are caused by multiple genes
    • it can be hard to get a good gene to the specific place it needs to be
      • more damage can be caused by genes being put in the wrong place
    • death can result due to infections and invasions of other viruses

http://www.wired.com/medtech/genetics/news/2007/08/gene_therapy

http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/hgmis/medicine/genetherapy.html

ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • Who decides what is normal and what is a defect?
  • What kind of an impact will this have on people who are currently living with these disabilities. Will this make them feel worse about themselves?
  • Gene therapy is expensive so will only the rich have access to treatment? What will happen to the poor?

http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/hgmis/medicine/genetherapy.html