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Chapter 6: International Trade and Investment Theory PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 6: International Trade and Investment Theory

Chapter 6: International Trade and Investment Theory

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Chapter 6: International Trade and Investment Theory

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    1. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-1 Chapter 6: International Trade and Investment Theory International Business, 4th Edition Griffin & Pustay

    2. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-2 Chapter Objectives_1 Understand the motivation for international trade Summarize and discuss the differences among the classical country-based theories of international trade Use the modern firm-based theories of international trade to describe global strategies adopted by businesses

    3. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-3 Chapter Objectives_2 Describe and categorize the different forms of international investment Explain the reasons for foreign direct investment Summarize how supply, demand, and political factors influence foreign direct investment

    4. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-4 International Trade Trade: voluntary exchange of goods, services, assets, or money between one person or organization and another International trade: trade between residents of two countries

    5. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-5 Figure 6.2 Sources of the Worlds Merchandise Exports, 2001

    6. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-6 The largest component of the annual $1.5 trillion trade in international services is travel and tourism

    7. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-7 Classical Country-Based Trade Theories Mercantilism Absolute Advantage Comparative Advantage Comparative Advantage with Money Relative Factor Endowments

    8. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-8 Mercantilism A countrys wealth is measured by its holdings of gold and silver A countrys goal should be to enlarge holdings of gold and silver by Promoting exports Discouraging imports

    9. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-9 Modern Mercantilism Neomercantilists or protectionists American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations Textile manufacturers Steel companies Sugar growers Peanut farmers

    10. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-10 Disadvantages of Mercantilism Confuses the acquisition of treasure with the acquisition of wealth Weakens the country because it robs individuals of the ability To trade freely To benefit from voluntary exchanges Forces countries to produce products it would otherwise not in order to minimize imports

    11. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-11 Absolute Advantage Export those goods and services for which a country is more productive than other countries Import those goods and services for which other countries are more productive than it is

    12. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-12 Table 6.1 The Theory of Absolute Advantage: An Example

    13. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-13 Absolute Advantages Flaw What happens to trade if one country has an absolute advantage in both products? No trade would occur

    14. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-14 Comparative Advantage Produce and export those goods and services for which it is relatively more productive than other countries Import those goods and services for which other countries are relatively more productive than it is

    15. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-15 Differences between Comparative and Absolute Advantage Absolute versus relative productivity differences Comparative advantage incorporates the concept of opportunity cost Value of what is given up to get the good

    16. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-16 Table 6.2 The Theory of Comparative Advantage: An Example

    17. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-17 Comparative Advantage with Money One is better off specializing in what one does relatively best Produce and export those goods and services one is relatively best able to produce Buy other goods and services from people who are better at producing them

    18. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-18 Table 6.3 The Theory of Comparative Advantage with Money: An Example

    19. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-19 Relative Factor Endowments Heckscher-Ohlin Theory What determines the products for which a country will have a comparative advantage? Factor endowments vary among countries Goods differ according to the types of factors that are used to produce them

    20. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-20 Relative Factor Endowments_2 A country will have a comparative advantage in producing products that intensively use resources (factors of production) it has in abundance China: labor Saudi Arabia: oil Argentina: wheat

    21. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-21 Figure 6.3 U.S. Imports and Exports, 1947: The Leontief Paradox

    22. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-22 Modern Firm-Based Trade Theories Country Similarity Theory Product Life Cycle Theory Global Strategic Rivalry Theory Porters National Competitive Advantage

    23. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-23 Growth of Firm-Based Theories Growing importance of MNCs Inability of the country-based theories to explain and predict the existence and growth of intraindustry trade Failure of Leontief and others to empirically validate country-based Heckscher-Ohlin Theory

    24. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-24 Firm-Based Trade Theories Incorporate additional factors into explanations of trade flows Quality Technology Brand names Customer quality

    25. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-25 Country Similarity Theory Explains the phenomenon of intraindustry trade Trade between two countries of goods produced by the same industry Japan exports Toyotas to Germany Germany exports BMWs to Japan

    26. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-26 Country Similarity Theory_2 Trade results from similarities of preferences among consumers in countries that are at the same stage of economic development Most trade in manufactured goods should be between countries with similar per capita incomes

    27. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-27 Product Life Cycle Theory Describes the evolution of marketing strategies Stages New product Maturing product Standardized product

    28. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-28 Figure 6.4 The International Product Life Cycle: Innovating Firms Country

    29. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-29 Figure 6.4 The International Product Life Cycle: Other Industrialized Countries

    30. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-30 Figure 6.4 The International Product Life Cycle: Less Developed Countries

    31. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-31 Global Strategic Rivalry Theory Firms struggle to develop sustainable competitive advantage Advantage provides ability to dominate global marketplace Focus: strategic decisions firms use to compete internationally

    32. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-32 Sustaining Competitive Advantage Owning intellectual property rights Investing in research and development Achieving economies of scale or scope Exploiting the experience curve

    33. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-33 Porters National Competitive Advantage Success in trade comes from the interaction of four country and firm specific elements Factor conditions Demand conditions Related and supporting industries Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry

    34. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-34 Figure 6.5 Porters Diamond of National Competitive Advantage

    35. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-35 The intense competitiveness of Japanese market forces manufacturers to continually develop and fine-tune new products

    36. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-36 Figure 6.6 Theories of International Trade Country-Based Theories Country is unit of analysis Emerged prior to WWII Developed by economists Explain interindustry trade Include Mercantilism Absolute advantage Comparative advantage Relative factor endowments Firm-Based Theories Firm is unit of analysis Emerged after WWII Developed by business school professors Explain intraindustry trade Include Country similarity theory Product life cycle Global strategic rivalry National competitive advantage

    37. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-37 Types of International Investments Does the investor seek an active management role in the firm r merely a return from a passive investment? Foreign Direct Investment Portfolio Investment

    38. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-38 Figure 6.7 Stock of Foreign Direct Investment, by recipient

    39. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-39 Table 6.4 Sources of FDI for the U.S., end of 2002

    40. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-40 Table 6.4 Destinations of FDI for the U.S., end of 2002

    41. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-41 International Investment Theories Ownership Advantages Internalization Dunnings Eclectic Theory

    42. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-42 Ownership Advantages A firm owning a valuable asset that creates a competitive advantage domestically can use that advantage to penetrate foreign markets through FDI Why FDI and not other methods?

    43. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-43 Internalization Theory FDI is more likely to occur when transaction costs with a second firm are high Transaction costs: costs associated with negotiating, monitoring, and enforcing a contract

    44. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-44 Dunnings Eclectic Theory FDI reflects both international business activity and business activity internal to the firm 3 conditions for FDI Ownership advantage Location advantage Internalization advantage

    45. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-45 Table 6.5 Factors Affecting the FDI Decision

    46. 2004 Prentice Hall 6-46 Ikea aggressively exports its furniture to other countries