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Chapter 5. The Theory of Trade and Investment. Learning Objectives. To understand the traditional arguments of how and why international trade improves the welfare of all countries

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

The Theory of Trade and Investment

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To understand the traditional arguments of how and why international trade improves the welfare of all countries
  • To review the history and compare the implications of trade theory from the original work of Adam Smith to the contemporary theories of Michael Porter
  • To examine the criticisms of classical trade theory and examine alternative viewpoints of which business and economic forces determine trade patterns between countries
  • To explore the similarities and distinctions between international trade and international investment
evolution of trade theory
Evolution of Trade Theory
  • The Age of Mercantilism
  • Classical Trade Theory
  • Factor Proportions Trade Theory
  • International Investment and Product Cycle Theory
  • The New Trade Theory: Strategic Trade
  • The Theory of International Investment
the age of mercantilism
The Age of Mercantilism

The evolution of trade into the form we see today reflects three events:

The Collapse of Feudal Society

The Emergence of the Mercantilist Philosophy

The Life Cycle of the Colonial Systems of the

European Nation-States

  • Mixed exchange through trade with accumulation of wealth
  • Conducted under authority of government
  • Demise of mercantilism inevitable
classical trade theory
Classical Trade Theory
  • The Theory of Absolute Advantage
    • The ability of a country to produce a product with fewer inputs than another country
  • The Theory of Comparative Advantage
    • The notion that although a country may produce both products more cheaply than another country, it is relatively better at producing one product than the other
classical trade theory contributions
Classical Trade Theory Contributions
  • Adam Smith—Division of Labor
    • Industrial societies increase output using same labor-hours as pre-industrial society
  • David Ricardo—Comparative Advantage
    • Countries with no obvious reason for trade can specialize in production, and trade for products they do not produce
  • Gains From Trade
    • A nation can achieve consumption levels beyond what it could produce by itself
factor proportions trade theory
Factor Proportions Trade Theory

Developed by Eli Heckscher

Expanded by Bertil Ohlin

factor proportions trade theory10
Factor Proportions Trade Theory

A country that is relatively labor abundant (capital abundant) should specialize in the production and export of that product which is relatively labor intensive (capital intensive).

the leontief paradox
The Leontief Paradox

The Test:

Could Factor Proportions Theory be used to explain the types of goods the United States imported and exported?

The Method:

Input-output analysis

the leontief paradox12
The Leontief Paradox

The Findings:

The U.S. exported labor-intensive products and imported capital-intensive products.

The Controversy:

Findings were the opposite of what was generally believed to be true!

overlapping product ranges theory staffan burenstam linder
Overlapping Product Ranges Theory:Staffan Burenstam Linder
  • Trade in manufactured goods dictated not by cost concerns, but by similarity in product demands across countries.
  • Work focused on preferences of consumer demand.
  • Today, termed market segments.
product cycle theory
Product Cycle Theory
  • Raymond Vernon
  • Focus on the product, not its factor proportions
  • Two technology-based premises
product cycle theory vernon s premises
Product Cycle Theory:Vernon’s Premises
  • Technical innovations leading to new and profitable products require large quantities of capital and skilled labor
  • The product and the methods for manufacture go through three stages of maturation
stages of the product cycle
Stages of the Product Cycle

The New Product

The Maturing Product

The Standardized Product

the product cycle and trade implications
The Product Cycle and Trade Implications
  • Increased emphasis on technology’s impact on product cost
  • Explained international investment
  • Limitations
    • Most appropriate for technology-based products
    • Some products not easily characterized by stages of maturity
    • Most relevant to products produced through mass production
the new trade theory strategic trade
The New Trade Theory: Strategic Trade

Two New Contributions

  • Paul Krugman-How trade is altered when markets are not perfectly competitive
  • Michael Porter-Examined competitiveness of industries on a global basis
strategic trade
Strategic Trade

Krugman’s Economics of Scale:

Internal Economies of Scale

External Economies of Scale

strategic trade20
Strategic Trade
  • Government can play a beneficial role when markets are not purely competitive
  • Theory expands to government’s role in international trade
  • Four circumstances exist that involve imperfect competition in which strategic trade may apply
strategic trade21
Strategic Trade

The Four Circumstances Involving Imperfect Competition:





strategic trade22
Strategic Trade

Porter’s Diamond of National Advantage

  • Innovation is what drives and sustains competitiveness
  • Four components of competition
    • Factor Conditions
    • Demand Conditions
    • Related and Supporting Industries
    • Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry
michael porter s competitive clusters
Michael Porter’s Competitive Clusters
  • Critical masses of unusual competitive success in particular fields, located in one place
the theory of international investment
The Theory of International Investment
  • The movement of capital has allowed foreign direct investments across the globe
the theory of international investment25
The Theory of International Investment
  • Firms as Seekers
    • Seeking Resources
    • Seeking Factor Advantages
    • Seeking Knowledge
    • Seeking Security
    • Seeking Markets
the theory of international investment26
The Theory of International Investment
  • Firms as Exploiters of Imperfections
    • Imperfections in Access
    • Imperfections in Factor Mobility
    • Imperfections in Management
  • Firms as Internalizers
    • Establish their own multinational operations-internalize production
    • Competitive advantage due to confidentiality