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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza IN EGYPT. Presentation by Prof. Dr. Hamed Samaha CVO, GOVS HPAI Technical Meeting Rome, 27-29 June. HPAI in Egypt. Historical view of the disease Current status of the disease Integrated National Plan for Avian and Human Influenza WHAT WAS DONE

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza in egypt
Highly Pathogenic Avian InfluenzaIN EGYPT

Presentation by

Prof. Dr. Hamed Samaha


HPAI Technical Meeting

Rome, 27-29 June

Hpai in egypt

HPAI in Egypt

Historical view of the disease

Current status of the disease

Integrated National Plan for Avian and Human Influenza





Historical view of the disease
Historical view of the disease

  • The first HPAI outbreak was announced on 17th February 2006

  • It started in 3 governorates and spread thereafter to 21 out of the 27 governorates of the country, infecting commercial and backyard systems

  • 36 million birds have been culled with costs estimated at between 2 to 3 million USD.

  • 1.5 million individuals whose livelihoods depend on poultry were affected

  • The disease is now endemic and outbreaks are detected from north to south of the country but mainly in the areas adjacent to the Nile river

Current status of the disease
Current status of the disease

Updated on 13/6/2007 (Since February 2006)

  • Poultry cases

    • Backyard – 370 cases;

    • Farms – 850 cases;

    • Zoo – 4 cases.

  • Human cases

    • 3281 suspected cases

    • 37 cases confirmed

    • 15 deaths

    • 11 males and 26 females

    • 2 cases in farm workers

    • 35 cases in backyard owners

Integrated national plan for avian and human influenza
Integrated National Plan for Avian and Human Influenza

  • Regulatory measures

  • Surveillance

  • Culling and disinfection

  • Restocking of farms

  • Compensation

  • Vaccination

  • Communication, and awareness

  • Training

  • Quarantine measures

  • Registration of poultry slaughter houses

    • Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR) is responsible for the progressive control of HPAI H5N1 in domestic poultry

      Government coordination of HPAI activities is provided by a Supreme Committee headed by the Ministry of Health and Population, an Avian Influenza Scientific Committee at GOVS level and a Committee for Combating Avian Influenza within the MARL

What was done 1 2
What was done (1/2)

  • Trainings on various topics for:

    • field veterinarians, 2400 farm workers, 3600 staff at Governorate and District veterinary services

  • Development of SOPs on surveillance, culling, etc.

  • Culling – around 36 million birds

  • Recruitment of national staff: 1200 veterinarians; 1200 employees; 300 derivers (vaccination. surveillance and control)

  • Initially compensation was done (185 million LE)

  • Vaccination started on 7th March 2006 (H5N1 and H5N2 inactivated vaccines)

    • 0ver 750 million birds were vaccinated with H5N2 and 150 million birds with H5N1 in commercial farms; 70 million birds were vaccinated with H5N1 in backyards; 11 million day old chicks were vaccinated with H5N2

What was done 2 2
What was done (2/2)

Cooperation with other agencies (ongoing)

  • UNICEF (support in Communications and technical advices )

  • NAMRU-3 and WHO (assistance in viruses isolation, strengthening of national referral labs)

  • AU / IBAR via OIE (14 million doses of H5N2 AI vaccine)

  • The World Bank (minimize risk of Human Influenza via controlling HPAI in domestic birds)

  • Development of national preparedness plans and other activities in collaboration with FAO, WB, WHO, UNICEF, UNSIC, WFP, USAID

Current activities
Current activities

  • Mass vaccination of backyard flocks (national plan for backyard poultry vaccination)

  • Increase the capacity of the central laboratory and it’s satellites

  • Assistance in public awareness campaigns

  • Restructuring and upgrading the poultry production sector, and improving the backyard practices

  • Reviewing and amending the current disease control decrees and laws

  • Setting clear description for the mandates of the relevant parties within MoALR and among all other relevant national or international parties

  • Reviewing and Improving the Egyptian National Integrated plan for control and eradication of HPAI, with new approaches for the surveillance plan to effectively minimize the spread of the virus and monitor the efficacy of the control measures


  • At village, district and governorate level the existing public veterinary services need to be strengthened

    • Provision of technical assistance

    • Information flow between the different administrative levels – needs improvement

  • Coordination between all relevant authorities needs to be strengthened

  • Difficulties to enforce legislation

  • Standard procedures in core functions (preparedness, surveillance, control, quarantine, biosecurity, certification) – needs to be tested / updated

  • Response capacity to confirmed infections – needs to improve

  • Culling

    • compensation initially not applied to backyard poultry keepers

    • no incentive to notify a suspected cases of HPAI

  • Future interventions 1 2
    Future interventions (1/2)

    • SOPs developed / updated, tested and disseminated

    • In each governorate, a rapid response team to disease outbreaks will be constituted and equipped

    • At village, district and governorate levels strengthen the existing public veterinary services

      • Provision of technical assistance / means of real-time communication / training

  • Continue vaccination of poultry nationwide (mass vaccination)

    • Developing of national laboratory for vaccine production to produce AI vaccine

  • Increasing the capacity of poultry slaughter houses

  • Continue restructuring the national poultry production industry

  • Future interventions 2 2
    Future interventions (2/2)

    • In collaboration with FAO and other partners to implement the following projects:

      • Strengthening the animal health system at local, governorate and central levels to prevent, control, and eradicate highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1in Egypt

      • Emergency assistance for the early detection, prevention and control of avian influenza in the Maghreb and Egypt

      • Promoting strategies for prevention and control of HPAI that focus on smallholder livelihoods and biodiversity