increasing explicitness in phonemic awareness and phonics instruction l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 120 Views
  • Uploaded on

Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction . Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia. Sharon Walpole University of Delaware. Today’s Goals. Learn about direct instruction techniques to teach early reading skills

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction' - loring


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
increasing explicitness in phonemic awareness and phonics instruction

Increasing Explicitness in Phonemic Awareness and Phonics Instruction

Michael C. McKenna

University of Virginia

Sharon Walpole

University of Delaware

today s goals
Today’s Goals

Learn about direct instruction techniques to teach early reading skills

Consider instructional procedures in direct instruction

Consider chances to incorporate these techniques in your whole-group and needs-based instruction

back in school
Back in School

Apply concepts from our book study to increase explicitness in first-grade lessons

Test your modified plan for three days in a first-grade classroom

Consider strategies to share what you learned with the rest of the first-grade team

slide4
Let’s look at teacher directions for four lessons, each taken from a different core program, to introduce the sound of the letter B.

Think about your struggling readers.

slide5
Teacher reads poem

Teacher rereads and asks students to clap when they hear a word beginning with /b/

Teacher models /p/ + /ig/ = /pig/

“Now you blend; what word is: /b/+/ig/ /f/+/ig/ /r/+/ig/

“I need four volunteers to hold up letter cards.”

“What letter do I need to add to /ig/ to get /big/? Who should hold up their card?”

“What letter do I need to add to …” (ran/hat/get/bit)

“b,g,r can also be heard at the end of a word”

“What letter do I need to add to the end of /ka/ to get cab? /tu/ to get tub? /be/ to get beg?”

slide6
Read sentence and exaggerate the /b/

“Baby Bobby blows big bubbles.”

Underline each B while reading.

“What’s the sound of B?”

“Read this sentence with me.”

Touch each B while they read with you.

“What other words begin with the letter B?”

List their words and add others for variety.

If they offer a word that does not begin with /b/, record on different list and contrast with list of /b/ words.

Have all read through list of /b/ words together.

Underline B in each word as it is read.

slide7
Record letters on chart as you discuss the sound of each.

Write Bb on chart.

“The sound for B is /b/.” “What is the sound for B?”

“Let’s review.” Record Hh and repeat lesson.

Continue with Dd Ll Gg Cc

If they get it wrong, correct immediately and have students repeat.

slide8
“My turn. When I touch it I’ll say it.”

Touch b quickly say /b/ - repeat 3 times

“Your turn. When I touch it you say it.”

Pause.

“Get ready.”

Touch b.

“Again.”

Touch b. Repeat until all are firm with sound

“Get ready to say two sounds when I touch them.”

Alternate b and p.

some garf assumptions
Some GARF Assumptions
  • First-grade achievement is critically important in our schools.
  • Our state-wide data indicate that first-grade achievement varies widely.
  • We must consider improvements in our whole-group and in our needs-based instruction to improve achievement.
what does research say about direct instruction
What does research say about direct instruction?
  • There is evidence that direct instruction can be effective (CSRQ Center Report).
  • There is evidence that it is not always effective (e.g., Ryder, Burton, & Silberg, 2006).
  • There is controversy over the role of the curriculum designers in the program evaluations (e.g., Stahl, Duffy-Hester, & Stahl, 1998).
slide13

A Closer Look at Direct Instruction

During the 1970s and 80s, researchers worked to identify the characteristics of effective teaching. They asked two key questions:

What do more-effective teachers do that less-effective teachers don’t?

If less-effective teachers learn and apply these techniques, will the learning of their students increase?

In 1986, a now-classic article by Barak Rosenshine appeared in Educational Leadership. In it, he summarized the findings of the huge body of effectiveness research.

The result is a teaching model called “explicit instruction,” or sometimes “direct instruction.”

slide14

The explicit teaching model is sometimes divided into three phases:

1 2 3

Guided

Practice

Independent

Practice

Introduction of new material, organized into clear objectives, tied to previous learning, and accom-panied by modeling and monitoring by the teacher

slide15

Keep in mind that most of the researchers who studied effective teachers were not specifically interested in reading instruction. This is why the model sounds generic. It can be applied to nearly any content subject!

When reading researchers, such as the National Reading Panel, say that research favors “explicit, systematic” instruction, this is the model they mean.

Now let’s look more closely at the characteristics Rosenshine extracted from the research.

for your teaching to be explicit you should
For your teaching to be explicit, you should …
  • Begin the lesson with a short statement of goals.
  • Begin the lesson with a short review of previous, prerequisite learning.
  • Present new material in small steps, with student practice after each step.
  • Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations.
  • Provide active practice for all students.
  • Ask many questions, check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students.
  • Guide students during initial practice.
  • Provide systematic feedback and corrections.
  • Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercises and, where necessary, monitor students during seatwork.
  • Continue practice until students are independent and confident.

– Rosenshine (1986), pp. 60, 62

slide17

Direct Explicit

Some confusion can occur when the phrase, “direct instruction” is used interchangeably with “explicit instruction.” This is because a publishing company has long used “Direct Instruction” in the name of its commercial products. One way to avoid confusion is to say “Little d-i” when referring to explicit teaching and “Big D-I” when referring to the product. Of course, you can also avoid confusion by using the phrase “explicit instruction.”

slide18

Our study group book today is designed for teachers who want to apply specific procedures from “little d-i” to their own core scope and sequence.

Some of the authors have been associated with Big D-I curriculum design, and they have written this book specifically for an audience not using D-I.

slide19

If we are adapting the procedures of direct instruction, why not just use their commercial materials?

You are likely to recognize that some di procedures are already built in to your core; others may be unnecessary for your children. In GARF, you can use both materials and instructional strategies based on research findings.

criticisms of core programs
Criticisms of core programs
  • Too many activities.
  • Vague directions.
  • No assessment or progress monitoring.
  • Too much too fast for struggling readers.
  • Teacher language too difficult.

Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, Tarver, & Jungjohann, 2006, Chapter 2.

little di teaching procedures
Little di teaching procedures
  • Model (teacher demonstrates directly)
  • Lead (teacher responds with the students, as in choral reading)
  • Test (students respond on their own)
  • Plan teacher talk so that students understand it and it is repetitive

Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, Tarver, & Jungjohann, 2006, Chapter 3.

basic di lesson characteristics
Basic di lesson characteristics
  • Homogeneous small group
  • Choral response
  • Teacher hand signals
  • Brisk instructional pacing
  • Procedures for teacher monitoring the learning of each child
  • Error correction strategies

Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, Tarver, & Jungjohann, 2006, Chapter 4.

coaches corner
Coaches’ Corner

To what extent are these instructional design concepts already in your core? What specific areas do you think could be improved?

slide24
As we work on collaborative study group tasks this year, we have two goals:
  • To wrestle with new content and consider ways to use that content to improve teaching and learning
  • To wrestle with our own presentation skills and consider ways to present the content clearly and meaningfully to other adults
ground rules for jigsaw activities
Ground Rules for Jigsaw Activities
  • Form groups that cross districts and programs.
  • Do not engage anyone in sidebar conversations.
  • Work for consensus as well as completeness in your group; take responsibility for everyone’s understanding.
  • Be sure that everyone has a role in your final presentation.
  • We will begin by planning 45 minutes to read and prepare and 1 hour to share.
group 1 rhyming segmenting and blending
Group #1: Rhyming, Segmenting, and Blending
  • Read chapter 5, pp. 35-53.
  • Discuss the main ideas in the chapter, and prepare a chart paper summary to share.
  • Prepare a teaching demonstration for the chart on page 51 (segmenting and blending) and one for the chart on page 52 (teaching rhyming)
group 2 teaching letter sound correspondence
Group #2: Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondence
  • Read Chapters 7 and 8, pp. 65-86.
  • Discuss the main ideas in the chapters, and prepare a chart paper summary to share.
  • Prepare a teaching demonstration for the chart on page 80 (teaching letter-sound correspondence) and one for the chart on page 86 (teaching common letter combinations).
group 3 beginning word reading
Group #3: Beginning Word Reading
  • Read Chapter 9, pp. 87-112.
  • Discuss the main ideas in the chapters, and prepare a chart paper summary to share.
  • Prepare a teaching demonstration for the chart on page 111 (sounding out regular words) and one for the chart on page 112 (sight-word reading with regular words).
group 4 primary word reading
Group #4: Primary Word Reading
  • Read Chapter 10, pp. 113-139
  • Discuss the main ideas in the chapters, and prepare a chart paper summary to share.
  • Prepare a teaching demonstration for the chart on page 137 (reading words with common letter combinations) and one for the chart on page 138 (reading words with affixes).
back in school31
Back in School

Apply concepts from our book study to increase explicitness in first-grade lessons

Test your modified plan for three days in a first-grade classroom

Consider strategies to share what you learned with the rest of the first-grade team

And we’ll begin our next session with your report!

references
References

Comprehensive School Reform Quality Center and American Institutes for Research (no date). CSRQ Center Report on Elementary School Comprehensive School Reform Models. csrq.org/reports.asp

Carnine, D. W., Silbert, J., Kame’enui, E. J., Tarver, S. G., & Jungjohann, K. (2006). Teaching struggling and at-risk readers: A direct instruction approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Rosenshine, B. V. (1986). Synthesis of research on explicit teaching. Educational Leadership, 43(7), 60-69.

Ryder, R. J., Burton, J. L., & Silberg, A. (2006). Longitudinal study of Direct Instruction effects from first through third grades. The Journal of Educational Research, 99, 179-191.

Stahl, S. A., Duffy-Hester, A. M., & Stahl, K. A. D. (1998). Theory and research into practice: Everything you wanted to know about phonics (but were afraid to ask). Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 338-355.