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Human Growth and Development
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  1. Human Growth andDevelopment Chapter Twenty Middle Adulthood: Biosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College

  2. Middle Adulthood Biosocial development halfway between beginning and end of adulthood Variations in aging, influenced by genes income ethnicity life style

  3. Primary and Secondary Aging Primary aging—inevitable age-related changes Secondary aging—age-related changes that are the consequence of a person’s behavior or society’s failure to eliminate unhealthy conditions drinking smoking eating lack of exercise

  4. Looking Old Hair turns gray and thins Wrinkles appear and skin becomes dry Body size (people get shorter) and shape change (fat pockets settle on various parts of body) As people age, they can either accept or try to change their appearance

  5. The Senses Vision more likely to need corrective lenses Hearing some hear much better than others none hear perfectly hearing acuity also differs by sex, with men suffering greater loss

  6. Vital Body Systems Systematic declines make people more vulnerable to disease Flu shot recommended for middle-aged people who have had illness or medical condition that depletes organ reserve U.S. death rate during period of middle age has been cut in half

  7. Changes occur in the sexual reproductive system during middle age sexual responses slower reproduction less likely The Sexual-Reproductive System

  8. Occurs between ages 42 and 58 marked decrease in the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone primary factors in exact age are genes and chance factors before birth can also occur earlier because of health habits, particularly cigarette smoking and malnutrition Menopause

  9. Menopause, cont. • Perimenopause, or Climacteric • extends from 3 years before to 3 years after cessation of menstrual cycle • timing of periods is erratic • unpredictable ovulation, with several ova released sometimes, and at other times none • can result in “change of life” baby

  10. Menopause, cont. • Symptoms of the Climacteric • lower estrogen, osteoporosis, inability to reproduce • hot flushes, hot flashes, cold sweats (vasomotor instability) • mood changes for some women • psychic consequences extremely variable

  11. Hormonal Replacement Therapy HRT treatment to compensate for hormone reduction usually involves estrogen and progesterone

  12. Hormonal Replacement Therapy, cont. Women’s Health Initiative revealed long-term use (10 years of longer) of HRT increases risk of heart disease stroke breast cancer Osteoporosis

  13. Do men undergo menopause? Males decline in sperm production and motility, as well as lower testosterone levels No dramatic andropause though men can suffer from sudden, stress-related shifts in hormone levels the opposite can also occur: a rise in self-esteem Male Menopause?

  14. Male Menopause?, cont. • Even with the help of new drugs, like Viagra, most men will experience a decline in sexual desire and speed of intercourse as they age • Worry about aging bodies and life changes can magnify the sexual consequences of aging

  15. 4 Measures of Health death, disease, disability, and vitality Measuring Health

  16. Mortality and Morbidity Mortality—the number of deaths each year per 1,000 people in a given population Morbidity—the rate of diseases of all kinds, chronic and acute, in a given population

  17. Disability and Vitality Disability inability to perform activities that most others can more costly to society than either mortality or morbidity Vitality how healthy and energetic one is—physically, socially, and emotionally

  18. Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYS) years of full vitality useful in evaluation of the costs and benefits of various medical interventions for example, clean water, immunizations, and adequate nutrition all improve quality and length of life The Burden of Poor Health

  19. The Burden of Poor Health, cont. • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) • each year lost to premature death and each fraction of full quality of life due to disability reduces a person’s DALYS • Burden of disease—total reduction in vitality caused by a disease-induced disability in a given population. An example would be obesity of Americans.

  20. Health habits are relevant through all of life, but most crucial during 35-65 for reassessment and improvement many middleagers improve their health habits individual and environmental variations can affect who gets healthier—choices are crucial Health Habits Over The Years

  21. More than 1/4 of middle age nonsmokers are former smokers 1/4 currently smoke Quitting by age 65 is too late for some smokers death rates are about the same as they have been in the past Tobacco

  22. Tobacco, cont. • Smoking increases rate of most other serious diseases including • cancer of the bladder, kidney, mouth, stomach • heart disease • stroke • pneumonia • emphysema • All smoking diseases are dose- and duration-sensitive

  23. Tobacco, cont. • Secondhand smoke is dangerous • Worldwide tobacco use is expected to cause more deaths in 2020 than any other single condition • Smoking influenced by social norms

  24. Alcohol Adults who consume alcohol in moderation (nor more than two servings a day) tend to live longer than those who never drink helps reduce heart disease More alcohol consumption comes with notable risk

  25. Alcohol, cont. • Excessive alcohol use • stresses heart and stomach • destroys brain cells • hastens calcium loss • adds to global disease burden

  26. Obesity and Overweight According to the World Health Organization,there is a worldwide epidemic of obesity and overweight Excess pounds cut down 3 years of life

  27. 65 percent of U.S. population between 35 and 65 years of age are overweight increased significantly for both sexes, in every decade in every cohort in every ethnic group The Impact of the Epidemic

  28. The Impact of the Epidemic, cont, • In almost every nation, people weigh more than they did a few decades ago • Being overweight increases risk of every cause of disease, as well as of disability and death

  29. 3 factors make weight loss difficult environmental factors more easily alterable than evolutionary or genetic causes evolution homeostastis makes people who lose weight crave food to protect against starvation genes, which regulate metabolism fat accumulation Losing Weight

  30. Exercise Needed to attain and maintain a healthy weight Burns calories, decreases appetite, and increases metabolism Reduces ratio of body fat to body weight Enhances cognitive functioning

  31. Ethnic Variations and Health Women outlive men in every nation of the world Well educated, financially secure people live longer than people of same age, sex, and ethnicity with less education and money income and education lead to access to services People in cities live longer than do people in the countryside

  32. Income and education are tied to community support quality of health care Personal factors affect variations medical socioeconomic genetic dietary religious cognitive cultural patterns Explaining Variations

  33. African-Americans 2x as likely to die as European-Americans Asian-Americans 1/2 as likely to die as European-Americans Subgroups within each of 5 broad ethnic categories has its own pattern for example, Cubans live longer than Puerto Ricans Japanese-Americans tend to live longer than Filipino-Americans The Influence of Ethnicity on Health

  34. The Influence of Ethnicity on Health, cont. • Some immigrants are healthier than long-time residents of same age and ethnicity because • only hardiest individuals emigrate • health habits of immigrants are better • immigrants have optimistic outlook • immigrants have family communication and support

  35. Genetic risks Specific health care behaviors Social context factors including stress, prejudice, and poverty Three Causes of Ethnic Variations in Health

  36. Each individual has particular genetic risks to be aware of family history can make some risks apparent medical tests sometimes confirm genetic influences but genes act epigenetically—that is, genes and lifestyle interact Genetic Risks

  37. Doctors and Patients Health Care System in United States, works less well for minorities and for the poor minorities and the poor less likely to seek preventive care when they do get care, it is less than it might be

  38. The Social Context People in poorer nations experience higher rates of almost every disease, injury, and cause of death

  39. The Social Context, cont. Some conditions relate to affluence (diseases ofaffluence) and may seem exceptions to the rule about the relationship between SES and health, but such conditions are rising among the poor Health of immigrants is better than for native-born members of the same ethnic group

  40. Social Context, cont. • How does connection between income and social context explain ethnic differences in health? • social context of poverty (ethnic minorities often average lower incomes) includes more pollution, crowding, and health hazards • Gender, ethnicity, income, and birthplace affect almost every health indicator