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Twinning water quality modelling in Latvia. Helene Ejhed 2007-04-25. Models basics choice. Model purpose Model components Resolution Data requirements Time and cost Test a couple of models. Models choice. Monitoring pressure state impact. Modeling pressure state impact response.

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Models basics choice
Models basics choice

  • Model purpose

  • Model components

  • Resolution

  • Data requirements

  • Time and cost

  • Test a couple of models

Models choice
Models choice











Freeware vs commercial aspects
Freeware vs commercial -aspects

  • Access

  • Support

  • Developments

  • Modules - Package

  • Cost

Identified concerns
Identified concerns

  • Eutrophication

  • Dangerous substances

Hydrology models
Hydrology models

  • The HBV model (Bergström, 1976 and 1995; Lindström et al., 1997)

    • is a conceptual, continuos, dynamic and distributed rainfall-runoff model. It provides daily values of spatial precipitation, snow accumulation and melt, soil moisture, groundwater level, and finally,runoff from every sub-basin, and routing through rivers and lakes. The model is calibrated and validated against observed time-series.

    • included in TRK

    • widely used

  • SCS (Soil Concervation Service) model

    • calculates using flow transport factors dependent on landuse and soil type which gives a "Curve number". Snow routine and monitored baseflow can be added. Daily data.

    • included in SWAT and others for surface runoff

    • simple model

Models of eutrophication
Models of Eutrophication

  • Purpose – to present good description of source apportionment (pressure) with resonable resolution to be able to give national overview of programmes of measures.

  • Complexity of models

    • Data requirements

    • User requirements

    • Parameter sensitivity

complex physical based model

Models systems eutrophication
Models systems Eutrophication

  • ex. TRK used on national scale in Sweden

    – system of models in different modules:

    • HBV hydrology

    • SOILNDB N agricultural release

    • ICECREAM P agricultural release

    • HBV-NP retention

    • Point source calculations

    • Source apportionment system

  • ex. SWAT or INCA or Fyriså model or... - model package

  • ex. MIKESHE or CE-W2_QUAL - model package

Eutrophication model systems details
EutrophicationModel systems - details

  • CE-QUAL-W2 is a two-dimensional water quality and hydrodynamic code


  • Both have a detailed grid description of the catchment.

  • Detailed description of hydrology and retention in streams and lakes

Eutrophication model systems trk n and p
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and P

  • Semidistributed description of the subcatchment

  • Detailed description of the agricultural process

  • Simple description of other diffuse sources

  • Detailed description of point sources on subcatchment

  • Description of hydrology

  • Decsription of retention

  • Applied on national scale in Sweden

Eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements

  • General TRK:

    • Land cover data, soil texture data, Soil USDA class data, crop area, phosphorus soil data, livestock density, runoff data from HBV, N deposition, leaching data from SOILNDB for arable land and leaching average data from long-term measurements regarding other land-use, point source position and discharge data, percentage of separate sewer for paved surfaces, rural household position and discharge, retention in %from HBV-N. Data are compiled at subcatchment level.


    • meteorological data, average soil organic matter, crop management and yield, N fertilisation and manuring, N fixation rates in ley, deposition rates, non-existent crop sequence combinations.

Eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements continued
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued

  • HBV: subbasin division and coupling, altitude distribution, time-series of precipitation and temperature (time-series of observed water discharge at some site).

  • HBV-NP: results from HBV,SOILNDB and ICECREAMDB, crop and soil distribution, leaching concentrations from other land use, location and emissions from point sources and rural households, lake depths and atmospheric N deposition (time-series of observed riverine N concentrations in some site).

Eutrophication model systems trk n and p data requirements continued1
EutrophicationModel systems – TRK N and PData requirements continued

  • ICECREAM – P agricultural model

  • requires phosphorous in soil,

Eutrophication model systems swat
EutrophicationModel systems –SWAT

  • SWAT is a continuous time model that operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The objective of such a model is to predict the long-term impacts in large basins of management and also timing of agricultural practices within a year (i.e., crop rotations, planting and harvest dates, irrigation, fertilizer, and pesticide application rates and timing).

  • Model system package

  • Detailed description of the landuse

  • Data requirement heavy

  • User requirement heavy

Eutrophication model systems inca p
EutrophicationModel systems –INCA-P

  • for assessing the effects of multiple sources of phosphorus on the water quality and aquatic ecology in heterogeneous river systems. The Integrated catchments model for Phosphorus (INCA-P) is a process-based, mass balance model that simulates the phosphorus dynamics in both the plant/soil system and the stream.

  • model system package

Eutrophication model inca
EutrophicationModel - INCA

Eutrophication model tests
EutrophicationModel tests

  • To be performed in Jelgava by Agricultural university in Latvia using Fyriså model, and SOILNDB and ICECREAM 2007 – low financing

  • Comparison of HBV-NP, Fyriså model, conceptual models with process based models in lake Vänern in Sweden published in 2004 – similar performance in model

  • Fyriså model based on monthly based data.

  • Communicate with the above project

  • Start by applying the TRK and SWAT

  • Then test MIKESHE

  • Data requirements will decide usefulness

Dangerous substances models and processes
Dangerous substancesModels and processes

  • Desiscion support system –

  • Recommendation of process

  • Chemical fate modeling – fugacity approach

  • Screening monitoring

  • MFA (Material Flow analysis) and LCA (Life Cycle Analysis)

  • QSAR modeling – for new substances

Twinning water quality modelling in latvia

Toxic pressure

Occurrence and distribution of chemicals in different media


Transport Processes and the use of Models

Dangerous substances models and processes qsar
Dangerous substancesModels and processes - QSAR

  • QSAR model is a relation between chemical structure and a property of the chemical compound. The features of a chemical structure are captured by so called chemical descriptors that can be of a number of different types.