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Hospital Practices Influence Breastfeeding Rates:The Data Tell the Story Birth & Beyond California: Breastfeeding Training& QI Project
Objectives • Name the source of in-hospital breastfeeding data for California • Describe the trends in California for ‘any’ and ‘exclusive’ in-hospital breastfeeding from 1992- 2007 • Identify three hospital practices that can discourage breastfeeding • List three hospital practices that increase breastfeeding duration
In-Hospital Breastfeeding Data Source:Newborn Screening Program • Administered by the Genetic Disease Screening Program (GDSP) • Primary purpose is to collect infant blood samples to screen for genetic diseases • Staff complete the forms following the instructions provided by GDSP • Summary data is sent to the Epidemiology staff of the Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Program and made available yearly on-line California Department of Public Health Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Division
Breastfeeding Categories • Exclusive breastfeeding • Infants fed only human milk • Recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Academy of Family Physicians, American Dietetic Association • Any breastfeeding • Includes infants fed only human milk and infants fed a combination of human milk and formula
California Any and Exclusive In-Hospital Breastfeeding: 1994-2007 The “GAP” is Growing Data Source: California Department of Public Health, Genetic Disease Screening Program, Newborn Screening Database 1994-2007 Prepared by: California Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health Program Note: Includes cases with feeding marked ‘BRO’ (Breast Only), ‘FOO’ (Formula Only), or ‘BRF’ (Breast & Formula)
Percent Any/Exclusive In Hospital Breastfeeding: 2007Closing the Gap Closed the Gap Closed the Gap Closing
Hospital Practices that Influence Breastfeeding Strongly encouraging Encouraging Discouraging Strongly discouraging HHS, Blueprint for Action on Breastfeeding, 2000
Practices that Discourage Exclusive Breastfeeding • No written policy to keep healthy mothers and infants from being separated • Lack of staff training • Routine formula supplementation • Delay of first feeding • Breastfeeding assessments not recorded • Mothers told to limit time breastfeeding Heinig, UC Davis, 2006
Hospital practices are associated with breastfeeding continuation at 8 weeks Murray, Birth, 2007
Providing Breastfeeding Support: Model Hospital Policy Recommendations • Model Hospital Policy Recommendations Toolkit www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/healthyliving/childfamily/Pages/MainPageofBreastfeedingToolkit.aspx ….or link to these by entering the url: http://cdph.ca.gov/Breastfeeding
The Ten Steps To Successful Breastfeeding Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative More than 19,000 hospitals worldwide 79 in United States 23 in California As of March 2009 www.babyfriendlyusa.org
Policy and Practice Changes • What barriers to changes in policy & practices do you see? • What do you think should be done to address those barriers?
Birth & Beyond California Training 2 hour Decision Maker 16 hour Learner Workshop 16 hour Train the Trainer Quality Improvement Participation in your QI team for 3 months Policy revision technical assistance Technical assistance, and tools for data collection and analysis tailored to your hospital BBC Regional QI Network meetings Monthly through June 2011
The Physiologic Norm is Easier • Skin to skin triggers • Infant competence • Appropriate maternal responses • Exclusive breastfeeding in the early days promotes a cascade of breastfeeding successes • Mother/baby togetherness in the early days enhances parental competence Moore, Cochrane Review, 2007
Day One Conclusions Mother/baby attachment Is supported by skin–to–skin contact Risks of not breastfeeding A public health concern Nurses can teach parents To recognize predictable newborn patterns Breastfeeding rates Reflect maternity care policies & practices
Assignment Prior to the Next ClassClinical Experiences Observe a newborn placed skin-to-skin with mother for 20 minutes Observe an infant breastfeeding and listen for suck and swallow sounds Observe the cluster feeding pattern of the breastfeeding newborn
Thank you • Complete evaluation • Bring your syllabus next time • See you then!