Basics of the grammar of English. Words, phrases, clauses Words Open classes; nouns and verbs Distribution patterns Nouns, pronouns, verbs, tenses Inflection Noun phrases Simple clauses, categories Questions Roles Prepositional phrases Clausal subjects / complements
We bought him a book because he likes to read
a man is running ⇔ * a Jim is running
a box of sand⇔ * a box of book
the book is mine⇔ * the book is which
a white elephant⇔ * a white he
How would we add negation?
[Who] bought two books today?
[What] did he buy today?
[When] did he buy two books ?
John sent a note to whom it may concern.
Note how similar this is to questions.