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Recruitment and Selection

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  1. Recruitment and Selection

  2. What this topic is about Need for workforce planning The recruitment and selection process Advantages and disadvantages of recruitment methods

  3. Reasons to Recruit Staff • Business expansion due to • Increasing sales of existing products • Developing new products • Entering new markets • Existing employees leave: • To work with competitors or other local employers • Due to factors such as retirement, sick leave, maternity leave • Business needs employees with new skills • Business is relocating – and not all of existing workforce want to move to new location

  4. Changes in Employment Patterns • The way we work is changing rapidly: • Increase in part-time working • Increases in numbers of single-parent families • More women seeking work • Ageing population • Greater emphasis on flexible working hours • Technology allows employees to communicate more effectively whilst apart (“teleworking”) • People rarely stay in the same job for life • Businesses need to understand and respond to these changes if they are to recruit staff of the right standard – and keep them!

  5. Part-time Staff + Flexible Working • Increased numbers of people in the UK are working part-time • Advantages • Cheaper to employ as entitled to less benefits • More flexible workforce (easier to reduce labour hours when sales fall or add hours when demand increases) • Wide range of potential recruits (e.g. working mothers who want to restrict the number of hours they work) • Disadvantages • Employees feel less loyal to business and therefore less motivated • Harder for managers to control and coordinate workforce

  6. What is Workforce Planning? Workforce planning is about deciding how many and what types of workers are required

  7. Steps in Workforce Planning • The workforce plan establishes what vacancies exist • Managers produce a job description and job specification for each post • Job description • Detailed explanation of the roles and responsibilities of the post advertised • Most applicants will ask for this before applying for the job • Refers to the post available rather than the person • Job specification • Sets out the kind of qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate should possess. • A vital tool in assessing the suitability of job applicants • Refers to the person rather than the post

  8. Recruitment Methods • Internal recruitment • Jobs given to staff already employed by business • Involves promotion and reorganisation • External recruitment • Job centres • Job advertisements • Recruitment agencies (offline and online) • Headhunting • Personal recommendation

  9. Internal Recruitment • Advantages • Cheaper and quicker to recruit • People already familiar with business and how it operates • Provides opportunities for promotion with in business • Disadvantages • Business already knows strengths and weaknesses of candidates • Limits number of potential applicants • No new ideas can be introduced from outside • May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed • Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled

  10. External Recruitment • Advantages • Outside people bring in new ideas • Larger pool of workers from which to find best candidate • People have a wider range of experience • Disadvantages • Longer process • More expensive process due to advertisements and interviews required • Selection process may not be effective enough to reveal best candidate

  11. The Recruitment Process

  12. Stages of Recruitment Process • Preparation • Identifying what jobs need filling and what role and specification of job is • Finding possible candidates • Various methods (e.g. advertising) to encourage potential candidates to apply for job • Selection • Interviews and other selection processes to choose best person for job • Completing contractual employment of that person • Induction • Introducing selected candidate to business

  13. Job Description and Specification • Job description • Detailed explanation of roles and responsibilities of post advertised • Most applicants will ask for this before applying for job • Refers to post available rather than person • Job specification • Drawn up by business • Sets out qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate should possess • Vital tool in assessing suitability of job applicants • Refers to person rather than post

  14. Contents of a Job Description • Job Title: this indicates the role/function that the job plays within an organisation, and the level of job within that function • Reporting responsibilities: who is the immediate boss of the job holder? • Subordinates: who reports directly TO the job holder? • Main purpose: what is involved in the job overall • Main tasks: description of the main activities to be undertaken and what the job holder is expected to achieve • Employment conditions (e.g. basis of payment; fringe benefits, holiday, period of notice, disciplinary)

  15. Objectives of Recruitment Advertising • Inform audience of potential candidates about opportunity • Provide enough information to both inform and interest possible applicants • Help “screen” or dissuade unsuitable applicants • Obtain most number of suitably qualified applicants for post advertised • Note – recruitment adverts can be published internally and externally

  16. Placing a Job Advertisement • Internal recruitment • Notice boards • Staff magazines & newsletters • Email • External recruitment • Newspapers and magazines • Job centres • Employment agencies and “Head-hunters” • Direct contacts (e.g. with employees in a competitor business) • Internet recruitment websites

  17. Role of a Recruitment Agency • A recruitment agency works to provide a link between the employer and employee • Potential employees register with the agency and provide personal details • Employers approach the agency for shortlists of potential candidates • Recruitment agencies charge a fee for the service • Main fee is to the employer • Usually a percentage of the employees wages and salary in the first 6-12 months • Often an expensive option • Some agencies specialise in particular employment areas • E.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment

  18. What to Consider When Advertising • Type of job • Senior management jobs merit adverts in the national newspapers and/or specialist management magazines • Many semi-skilled jobs need only be advertised locally to attract sufficient good quality candidates • Cost of advertising • National newspapers and television cost significantly more than local newspapers etc • Readership and circulation • How many relevant people does the medium reach? • How frequently is the publication published? • Frequency • How often does the business want to advertise the post?

  19. A Good Job Advertisement

  20. Contents of a Job Advertisement • Details of the business (name, brand, location, business activities) • Outline details of the job (title, main duties) • Conditions (special factors affecting the job) • Experience / qualifications required • Rewards (financial and non-financial) • Application process (how should applicants apply, how to; deadlines)

  21. Contents of a job application form • Personal details (name, nationality etc) • Educational history & qualifications • Previous employment history (periods, positions, roles, achievements…) • Suitability and reasons for applying for job • A chance for applicants to ‘sell themselves’ • Names of referees

  22. Curriculum Vitae • A written document • Often on one or two sides of A4 • Designed by the job applicant • Covers similar ground as job application

  23. Advantages of a job application versus a CV • Business can tailor questions and format to exact needs • An application form forces candidates to answer same questions and provide information in a consistent format • CV’s often come in many different formats, with key information either missing or presented in different ways • Encourages the applicant to consider the specific needs of the employer – e.g. respond to questions relevant to the employer • More likely to get up-to-date information from the applicant

  24. Reasons for Rejecting Candidates at Application Form Stage • May not meet standards set out in job specification • Wrong qualifications • Insufficient experience • May not have completed application form to a satisfactory standard • May be unlucky • Employer has set a limit on number of candidates who progress through to interview stage

  25. The Shortlist • Long list = total pool of applicants • Shortlist = small number of suitable applicants that meet the job criteria • Should ideally be drawn up by two people, acting independently • Important not to only include “perfect” or “ideal candidates”

  26. Recruitment Interview • Interview is a crucial part of the recruitment process • Chance for an employer to meet applicant face to face • Can obtain much more information on: • What person is like • Whether they are suitable for job • Whether they will fit into the business • Interview is also an important for the candidate • Obtain information about job • Assess the working culture of a possible new employer • Recruitment interviewing is a hard skill – often it is done very poorly!

  27. Information to Obtain During a Recruitment Interview • By the employer: • Information that cannot be obtained on paper from a CV or application form • Conversational ability- often known as people skills • Natural enthusiasm or manner of applicant • See how applicant reacts under pressure • Queries or extra details missing from CV or application form • By the employee • Whether job or business is right for them • What is culture of company like • What are exact details of job that may be omitted from job description

  28. Selection Tests • Formats • Aptitude tests • Intelligence tests • Personality tests • Why used • Basic interview can be unreliable as applicants can perform well at interview but not have qualities or skills needed for job • Selection tests increase chances of choosing best applicant and so minimise high costs of recruiting wrong people

  29. References • What are references? • Written character statements from people who know the applicant well • An important “safety check” • A chance to learn more about the strengths and weaknesses of an applicant • Final check that all information given by candidate is correct • Good honest reference from an independent source can also reveal good or bad incidences from candidate’s past or particular traits that may have been missed

  30. Test Your Understanding http://www.tutor2u.net/business/quiz/recruitmenttraining/quiz.html

  31. Recruitment and Selection