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Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). ME 258 Johann Karkheck. Introduction. The ability to store energy has become a necessity due to the intermittency of renewable energy sources that are gaining presence on the grid. Various technologies exist to accommodate a wide variety of storage needs.

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Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • The ability to store energy has become a necessity due to the intermittency of renewable energy sources that are gaining presence on the grid.
  • Various technologies exist to accommodate a wide variety of storage needs.
slide3
CAES
  • CAES is capable of high power output with long discharge times.
  • Issues with CAES
    • Existing configurations are not very efficient
      • 321 MW Huntorf, Germany ~ 42%
      • 110 MW McIntosh, Alabama ~ 50%
    • Storage Vessel
    • Energy Losses
simulation and analysis of different adiabatic caes plant configurations
Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic CAES plant configurations
  • Modeled each system component separately to achieve a modular layout
  • Analyze different CAES configurations to achieve maximum efficiency
    • Configuration 1 – Single-stage turbo machinery components with polytropicprocesses
    • Configuration 2 – Double-stage compression and heat exchangers
    • Configuration 3 – Triple-stage compression and heat exchangers
    • Configuration 4 – Single-stage turbo machinery w/isentropic compression/expansion and ideal motor and generator
simulation and analysis of different adiabatic caes plant configurations1
Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic CAES plant configurations
  • Inter and after-cooling have the most detrimental effect on system efficiency
  • The highest efficiency, 52-62% depending on heating and cooling load, is achieved in a two-stage adiabatic CAES configuration
  • If cooling is done via a natural source (i.e. river) an efficiency of 60% is realistic and would not require supplemental fuel
  • The key element to improve efficiency is development of a high temperature thermal storage (>600°C) and temperature resistant compressor materials
the thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on caes
The thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on CAES
  • CAES can be implemented to mitigate the intermittency of renewable energy sources
  • Thermal energy storage coupled with CAES eliminates the need for fossil fuel in reheating
  • Evaluate the effect of thermal storage on the efficiency of CAES using thermodynamic modeling
the thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on caes1
The thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on CAES
  • Initial parameters were used to study the effect of thermal storage on CAES
  • Inlet temperature of compressor and expander has greatest effect on thermal and power efficiency
the thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on caes2
The thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on CAES
  • The ratio of high storage pressure to the ambient pressure effects all work and heat transfer parameters
  • Number of charge/discharge cycles does not effect these parameters
  • Selection of appropriate pressure limits can raise power and thermal efficiency
temperature and pressure variations within caes caverns
Temperature and Pressure Variations within CAES Caverns
  • Charge and discharge processes induce fluctuations in the pressure and temperature within the storage cavern
  • Predictions of these fluctuations are required for proper cavern design and selection of turbo-machinery
  • Numerical and approximate analytical solutions were used to model the T&P of the air cavern
  • Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the dominant parameters that affect the T&P fluctuations and the required storage volume.
temperature and pressure variations within caes caverns1
Temperature and Pressure Variations within CAES Caverns
  • Heat transfer through cavern walls greatly effects T&P variations
  • Preference should be given to caverns with high rock effusivity
  • Losses can be reduced through reducing the injected air temperature
  • Longer durations of charge and discharge can also aid in reducing losses
exploring the concept of caes in lined rock caverns at shallow depth
Exploring the concept of CAES in lined rock caverns at shallow depth
  • Numerical modeling was performed on coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer associated with CAES in lined rock caverns
  • Using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth can reduce construction and operational costs if air tightness and stability can be assured
exploring the concept of caes in lined rock caverns at shallow depth1
Exploring the concept of CAES in lined rock caverns at shallow depth
  • Numerical modeling was performed on coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer associated with CAES in lined rock caverns
  • Using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth can reduce construction and operational costs if air tightness and stability can be assured
exploring the concept of caes in lined rock caverns at shallow depth2
Exploring the concept of CAES in lined rock caverns at shallow depth
  • Leaky storage caverns continue to diminish the achievable storage pressure over time
  • Models of both tight and leaky caverns show that the leakage rate increases over time resulting in increasing gas saturation of the lining and cavern wall
exploring the concept of caes in lined rock caverns at shallow depth3
Exploring the concept of CAES in lined rock caverns at shallow depth
  • Use of lined rock caverns at a shallow depth is only feasible if air tightness and stability can be assured
  • The key parameter to assure long term air tightness is the permeability of the concrete and surrounding rock
  • Increasing the moisture content of the lining can also decrease air leakage
  • Keeping the injection temperature close to the ambient cavern temperature can nearly eliminate thermal losses through the cavern walls
slide15
Operating characteristics of constant-pressure CAES combined with pumped hydro storage based on energy and exergy analysis
  • To avoid the deterioration of the cavern over time, configurations of a constant pressure water-compensated CAES system was studied
  • The constant pressure system with a compensating water column requires a very deep air storage cavern to produce the required pressure, resulting in high construction costs
slide16
Operating characteristics of constant-pressure CAES combined with pumped hydro storage based on energy and exergy analysis
  • Using a hydraulic pump rather than elevation difference reduces necessary storage depth, but the pump consumes approximately 15% of the generated power
  • Coupled compressed air and hydraulic storage tanks allow the compressed air to remain at constant pressure and energy to be produced by both CAES and hydraulic storage
slide17
Operating characteristics of constant-pressure CAES combined with pumped hydro storage based on energy and exergy analysis
  • System is independent of storage depth
  • Exergy loss of the air in hydraulic storage during discharge can be reduced by spraying water into the air to achieve a quasi-isothermal process
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Thermal storage improves CAES system efficiency and can negate the need for supplemental fuel during expansion
  • Research is needed to find high temperature (>600°C) thermal storage and compressor materials
  • Keeping the cavern inlet temperature near the storage temperature reduces losses due to heat transfer
  • Air tightness of storage cavern is essential to retain long term system efficiency
  • CAES coupled with hydraulic storage can make the depth of the storage cavern irrelevant and improve start up time of discharge cycle
sources
Sources

1. The thermodynamic effect of thermal energy storage on compressed air energy storage systemZhang, Yuan (Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Yang, Ke; Li, Xuemei; Xu, JianzhongSource:Renewable Energy, v 50, p 227-235, February 2013Database:Compendex

2. Operating characteristics of constant-pressure compressed air energy storage (CAES) system combined with pumped hydro storage based on energy and exergy analysisKim, Y.M. (ECO Machinery Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343, Korea, Republic of); Shin, D.G.; Favrat, D. Source:Energy, v 36, n 10, p 6220-6233, October 2011Database:Compendex

3. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balanceKim, Hyung-Mok (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon 305-350, Korea, Republic of); Rutqvist, Jonny; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Choi, Byung-Hee; Sunwoo, Choon; Song, Won-KyongSource:Applied Energy, v 92, p 653-667, April 2012Database:Compendex

4. Temperature and pressure variations within compressed air energy storage cavernsKushnir, R. (School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel); Dayan, A.; Ullmann, A. Source:International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, v 55, n 21-22, p 5616-5630, October 2012Database:Compendex

5. Simulation and analysis of different adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage plant configurationsHartmann, Niklas (University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Hebrühlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany); Vöhringer, O.; Kruck, C.; Eltrop, L. Source:Applied Energy, v 93, p 541-548, May 2012Database:Compendex