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Lowering Your Compressed Air Energy Costs . Trey Donze Mike Hotz Air Technologies. Why Care About Compressed Air?. Compressed air is expensive Compressed air is essential to plant productivity Compressed air systems can be effectively managed to improve plant operation

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lowering your compressed air energy costs

Lowering Your Compressed Air Energy Costs

Trey Donze

Mike Hotz

Air Technologies

why care about compressed air
Why Care About Compressed Air?
  • Compressed air is expensive
  • Compressed air is essential to plant productivity
  • Compressed air systems can be effectively managed to improve plant operation
  • Compressed air systems usually have significant opportunities for efficiency improvement
compressed air use in selected manufacturing industries
Compressed Air Use in Selected Manufacturing Industries

Compressed Air Energy Use as a Percentage of Total Electricity Use

Food

Metals

Paper

Petroleum

Chemicals

life cycle cost of an air compressor
Life Cycle Cost of an air compressor
  • Energy cost can account for up to 90% over a ten year working life
  • Within 12 months, the capital cost is usually exceeded by the running costs
  • First cost represents the lowest of the three costs
  • Energy consumption by far is the most significant factor in operating cost of an air compressor

Energy consumption

Installation

Maintenance

Investment

benchmark your system s efficiency
Benchmark Your System’s Efficiency
  • To make an accurate determination of energy savings solutions, it is important to measure your system flow, pressure and kW as well as evaluate any plans for future expansion
  • This is accomplished by a flow and kW survey
benchmark your system s efficiency6
Benchmark Your System’s Efficiency
  • Measure your compressed air requirements
    • Flow
    • Pressure
    • Dew point
    • kW and kWh
  • Benchmark your current system’s efficiency kWh/MCF
  • Receive a detailed report outlining improvements
slide9
Typical 24 hrs/day operation with low night shift and high day shift consumption. Steady weekend consumption (leakages).
  • (64% of installations).

time

energy reduction opportunities
Energy Reduction Opportunities
  • Use Efficient Compressor Controls
  • Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Lower Compressor Discharge Pressure
  • Efficiently Sequence Air Compressors
  • Operate and Maintain Compressed Air Equipment at Peak Efficiency
slide13

% Power Input

% Capacity

use efficient compressor controls
Use Efficient Compressor Controls

75 HP Lubricated screw compressor

w/ Modulation Control -vs.- 60 HP VSD

Average electrical cost = $0.06 / KWHR

A) 1st shift 250 CFM 2200 HRS/YR

B) 2nd shift 175 CFM 2200 HRS/YR

C) 3rd shift 100 CFM 2200 HRS/YR

75 HP unit @ 125 PSIG60HP VSD @ 125 PSIG

82.5 Bhp full load power 66 Bhp full load power

320 CFM 290 CFM

91.5% Motor eff. 94%

use efficient compressor controls16
Use Efficient Compressor Controls

75 Hp modulating60 Hp VSD

250 CFM: 250/320 = 78% (93% Bhp) 250/290 = 86% (86% Input kW)

175 CFM: 175/320 = 55% (86.5% Bhp) 175/290 = 60% (61% Input kW)

100 CFM: 100/320 = 31% (79% Bhp) 100/290 = 34% (38% Input kW)

use efficient compressor controls17
Use Efficient Compressor Controls

75 HP lubricated screw with modulation control

A) First shift 250 CFM:

82.5 Bhp X (.93 factor) X .746kW X $.06 X 2200Hrs = $8,738

.915 Mtr. eff. Hp kWh

B) Second shift 175 CFM:

82.5 Bhp X (.865 factor) X .746kW X $.06 X 2200Hrs = $8,127

.915 Mtr. eff. Hp kWh

C) Third shift 100 CFM:

82.5 Bhp X (.79 factor) X .746kW X $.06 X 2200Hrs = $7,422

.915 Mtr. eff. Hp kWh

Total = $24,287

use efficient compressor controls18
Use Efficient Compressor Controls

60 Hp Variable Speed compressor

A) First shift 250 CFM:

66 Bhp x .746 kW x (.86 factor) x $.06 x 2200Hrs = $5,946

.94 ME. Hp kWh

B) Second shift 175 CFM:

66 Bhp x .746 kW x (.61 factor) x $.06 x 2200Hrs = $4,217

.94 ME Hp kWh

C) Third shift 100 CFM:

66 Bhp x .746 kW x (.38 factor) x $.06 x 2200Hrs = $2,627

.94 ME Hp kWh

Total = $12,790

use efficient compressor controls19
Use Efficient Compressor Controls

Total Power Savings:

$24,287 - $12,790 = $11,497 per year

60 HP VSD costs $25,000 for a 2.17 year payback!

reduce compressed air usage
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Eliminate inappropriate air users
    • Use brushes, blowers, or vacuum systems instead of compressed air to clean parts or remove debris; 
    • Use blowers, electric actuators, or hydraulics instead of compressed air blasts to move parts;
    • Use high efficiency nozzles instead of open orifices
reduce compressed air usage21
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Eliminate inappropriate air users
    • Use fans to cool electrical cabinets instead of compressed air vortex tubes
    • Apply a vacuum system instead of using compressed air venturi methods
    • Use blowers instead of compressed air to provide cooling, aspirating, blow guns, air lances, agitating, mixing, or to inflate packaging
reduce compressed air usage22
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Minimize unregulated air users
    • Install regulators
    • Reduced pressure lowers air consumption
    • Unregulated users use 47% more compressed air at 110 vs. 70 PSIG
    • Less equipment wear and tear
reduce compressed air usage23
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Shut off air to equipment that is shutdown or abandoned
    • Install automatic solenoid valves
    • Valve off idled sections of the plant
reduce compressed air usage24
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Fix Leaks
    • Leaks can account for 10-50% of the total compressed air usage!

1/8 inch dia. hole = 25 SCFM = $3,000

1/4 inch dia. hole = 100 SCFM = $12,000

3/8 inch dia. hole = 230 SCFM = $26,000

* Based on 8,760 operating hrs/yr @ $0.07 per kWh energy cost

reduce compressed air usage25
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Minimize Leaks
    • Measure leak load to quantify the opportunity
    • Find the leaks with an ultrasonic leak detector
    • Tag the leaks
    • Fix the leaks
    • Re-measure the leak load to quantify the savings
    • Develop and on-going leak reduction program
reduce compressed air usage26
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Reduce plant system air pressure
  • Unregulated air users and air leaks use 28% more compressed air at 120 vs. 90 PSIG
reduce compressed air usage27
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Reduce system air pressure
    • Evaluate the pressure requirements of all compressed air users
    • Put the small high pressure user on its’ own compressor
    • Install good compressor sequencing controls
    • Lower the system air pressure
reduce system air pressure
Reduce System Air Pressure
  • Measure system/component pressure drops
  • Minimize distribution and component pressure drops
    • Loop air header
    • Upgrade, repair or eliminate high delta P components
    • Upsize piping/hoses
  • Address large intermittent air “gulpers” that draw the system down with storage and metering valves
  • Decentralize compressors
slide29

Receiver Sizing

Useful Free Air Stored = V x P

14.7

V = storage volume (Ft3)

P = pressure differential (Pressure Drop in Tank)

Example: Pneumatic conveyor requires 200 cfm of 40 psig air for 2 minutes every 10 minutes.

200 X 2=400 CF required useful free air to be stored

 P=100-40=60

400=V X 60/14.7 V= 400 X 14.7/60 = 98 CF = 735gallons

400 CF/8 minutes=50 CFM to refill

System sees 50 CFM instead of 200 CFM!

lower system pressure to lower air consumption
Lower System Pressure to Lower Air Consumption

95 psig – 950 CFM air usage

85 psig – 825 CFM air usage

70 psig – 700 CFM air usage

reduce compressed air usage31
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Reduce system air pressure
    • Use intermediate controllers with storage to regulate system air pressure
    • Effective when part of the plant operates at a lower pressure
    • Lowers air consumption
    • Does not lower compressor pressure
reduce compressed air usage32
Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Reduce system air pressure
    • Use effective compressor sequencing, storage, and compressor controls to “regulate” system pressure
    • Lowers air consumption and compressor pressure
    • Most energy efficient
slide34

Typical System Without a Sequencer

Cascading Systems

C1

C2

C3

C4

125 PSIG

125

unload

120

115

  • Individual settings
  • Large pressure band
  • Multiple units at part load
  • Very inefficient

110

115

110

105

load

100

100 PSIG

sequencers significantly improve efficiency to minimize energy costs
Sequencers Significantly Improve Efficiency to Minimize Energy Costs
  • Can regulate system pressure within 3-5 psi
  • Lower system pressure significantly reduces air demand (leaks and unregulated demand)
  • Operates the minimum # of compressors to meet the demand
  • Only one compressor trims at all times
  • Automatic scheduled system pressure changes and/or start/stop of system
  • Most efficient compressor sequence order determined from flow data
  • Can automatically select optimum sequence
slide38
Sequencerspay for themselves in energy savings by reducing pressure band differentials and lowering air usage

EXAMPLE- 4-100 Hp Compressors Required: 1700 SCFM at 100 Psig

Pressure Switch Settings Between 95 to 125Psig

Pressure Band of 30 Psig

400 Hp x .745 kW/Hp x 8800/year x .06 kWh = $167,387.00

.94 (motor Efficiency)

Reduce Pressure Band by 25 Psig to save12%=$20,086.00

sequencers can significantly improve efficiency to minimize energy costs
Sequencers Can Significantly Improve Efficiency to Minimize Energy Costs

Total system energy savings of 20-50% are expected

kw 100 cf stays consistent even under varying loads
kW/100 CF stays consistent even under varying loads

.32 kW/100CF versus .85 kW/100CF (63% Savings!)

sequencing significantly improves efficiency to minimize energy costs
Sequencing Significantly Improves Efficiency to Minimize Energy Costs
  • Basis 3 shift operation, $.06/kWhr, 20 PSI pressure band reduction
advanced sequencers provide system flow and pressure data to manage your 4th utility
Advanced sequencers provide system flow and pressure data to manage your 4th Utility
  • System flow and pressure are logged automatically
  • Determine the most efficient compressor sequence
  • Useful for peak load shedding
  • Measure leaks
  • Spot system/ production problems
  • Measure equipment/process air consumption
slide46

ManagAIR® by Air Technologies®

System Report for Ferro 9/7/01 1:59:05 PM

Alarm: No Faults Detected

Current System Readings- Pressure=108 Flowrate=1347 Sequence=2,1,3

Previous 8hrs Data: Hour1 Hour2 Hour3 Hour4 Hour5 Hour6 Hour7 Hour8

Min Pressure 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104

Avg Pressure 108 108 109 109 109 109 109 109

Max Pressure 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114

Min FlowRate 1274 1274 1311 1322 1324 1349 1311 1305

Avg FlowRate 1448 1468 1648 1647 1739 1870 1644 1718

Max FlowRate 2274 2298 2504 2485 2545 2629 2409 2432

Min DewPoint -44 -43 -43 -43 -40 -36 -32 -21

Avg DewPoint -41 -41 -36 -40 -37 -33 -25 -15

Max DewPoint -39 -39 -11 -37 -35 -30 -19 -10

Compressor Data #1 ZT25 #2 ZT25 #3 ZT25 NONE NONE NONE NONE

Delivery Air Press 110 113 107

DP Air Filter -.01 -.1 .01

Intercooler Pressure -9 30 1

Oil Injection Press 28 28 0

Delivery Air Temp 93 93 86

Oil Injection Temp 122 124 90

LP Outlet Temp 351 352 95

HP Outlet Temp 363 372 91

HP Inlet Temp 99 104 91

Cooling Medium Inlet Temp 91 91 86

MD Regen Air Out Temp 129 162 84

MD Wet Air In Temp 97 99 81

LP Element Temp Rise 260 261 9

HP Element Temp Rise 264 268 0

Cooling Water Temp Rise

Oil Cooler Approach Temp 31 33 4

Aftercooler Approach Temp 2 2 0

Intercooler Approach Temp 8 13 5

MD Regen Temperature Drop 234 210 7

MD Inlet Temperature Diff 4 6 -5

Loaded Hours 7358 7579 8773

Running Hours 11048 11616 12606

Compressor Status UNLOADED LOADED STOPPED

Motor Starts 1717 1042 1060

Link Type MKIII MKIII MKIII

Isolated/Integrated CENTRAL CENTRAL CENTRAL

Full Feature Dew Point

Oil Filter Remaining Lifetime 2423 1413 952

Oil Filter Total Lifetime 4000 4000 4000

Oil Remaining Lifetime 4952 4383 3475

Oil Total Lifetime 16000 16000 16000

Hours Until Regrease Bearings 848 286 3471

Hours Between Bearing Regreasing 4000 4000 4000

Daily System Report and graph faxed or e-mailed to you automatically

slide47

Every 4 inches (water) pressure drop reduces the compressor capacity 1%

A dirty inlet filter can rob you of 5% or more!

Good Maintenance Saves Energy

Inlet Filters

slide48

Good Maintenance Saves Energy

Dirty Coolers

For every 11oF deterioration in the intercooler approach or increase in water temperature, the power consumption will increase by 1%.

slide49

Good Maintenance Saves Energy

Dirty Coolers

For every 10oF deterioration of the after cooler approach temperature, the dryer load is increased by as much as 46%.

slide50

Good Maintenance Saves Energy

Dirty Oil Separator

A dirty oil separator can increase your HP 5%

energy reduction opportunities51
Energy Reduction Opportunities
  • Use Efficient Compressor Controls
  • Reduce Compressed Air Usage
  • Lower Compressor Discharge Pressure
  • Efficiently Sequence Air Compressors
  • Operate and Maintain Compressed Air Equipment at Peak Efficiency
lowering your compressed air energy costs52

Lowering Your Compressed Air Energy Costs

Trey Donze

Mike Hotz

Air Technologies

513-539-6747