Outline of the Day 9.30-45am Paper 1 Content Overview 9.45-10.45am Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Causes of the Second World War 10.45-11.00am BREAK 11.00-12.00 Causes of the FWW 12.00-1.00pm LUNCH 1.00-2.00pm Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations 2.00-2.15pm BREAK 2.15-3.15pm Exam Technique
1hr 45mins The 1st 3 topics…answer ALL 3! 35mins per section = 1.5mins/mark 4marks = 6mins 6marks= 9mins 10marks = 15mins This gives 5mins to read and plan!!! Topics you MUST answer
What were the MAIN causes? • M - militarism (increasing the size of your army or navy) • A – alliances (countries promising to help each other) • I – imperialism (powerful countries wanting to increase their power by taking other countries) • N – nationalism (being prepared to fight for ones country) THINK Can you think of any examples of how the main European countries tried to increase their power?
Alliances Triple Alliance Triple Entente 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.
DEFENSIVE ALLIANCES Anglo-Russian Agreement, 1907 Triple Alliance, 1882 Entente Cordiale, 1904 Franco-Russian Alliance, 1893
1. Tangier, 1905-06 2. Agadir, 1911 Morocco Germany sent the gun boat the Panther to protect German interests France was given overall control of Morocco but not allowed any military presence Kaiser visits Tangier Rebellion in Fez The Kaiser states he supports an independent Morocco Germany was given two marshy strips of land in the French Congo A-H supported Moroccan independence Britain believed Wilhelm was trying to set up a naval base Germany wanted to expand it’s empire as part of WELTPOLITIK Italy opposed Germany – this weakened the TA Britain signed a secret naval agreement with France to protect the north coast Britain and Russia supported France The Kaiser was testing the strength of the Entente Cordiale Brought Europe close to war A conference was held at Algeciras, Spain Britain mobilised it’s navy in Gibraltar France felt more confident of Britain’s support Germany was annoyed and humiliated Kaiser was humiliated
Bosnia, 1909-09 Austrian leader Franz Josef taking Bosnia-Herzegovina from the Turkish Sultan
Bosnian Crisis, 1908-09 • Ottoman Empire (Turkish Empire) was breaking up • Serbia wanted to unite all SLAVS – Yugoslavia • Russia and Serbia = allies • Russia called for an international conference to discuss Bosnia • A-H refused to attend • Germany supported A-H because of their support during Morocco • Russia had to back down as it was not ready to fight Germany • Serbia wanted revenge against A-H • Russia was humiliated and now unlikely to back down • A-H had the support of Germany – even if it meant war this was important in 1914 • Russia became closer to Br and Fr
Arms Race and the First World War: Increase in Spending There was a four-fold increase in defence spending of the great powers, 1870-1914.
Arms Race and the First World War: This British postcard interprets Kaiser Wilhelm’s statement about wanting ‘a place in the sun’ – it shows him making everybody in the world bow down to him. IMPERIALISM led to an arms race … in 1900, Kaiser Wilhelm said that GERMANY wanted ‘a place in the sun’ – i.e., that Germany wanted an empire as big as Britain’s. This TERRIFIED the British.
Arms Race and the First World War: Attitude towards war But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. (GERMANY was especially militaristic.)
Arms Race and the First World War: As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the nations introduced CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained RESERVES. All the nations except Britain had HUGE armies.
Arms Race and the First World War: Navies If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900 Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a huge programme of building warships.
Arms Race and the First World War: Navies Both BRITAIN andGERMANY started building Dreadnoughts – the most advanced class of warship in the world. The Dreadnought essentially reduced everybody else’s number of warships to zero.
Arms Race and the First World War: In the end, Britain’s built many more Dreadnoughts than Germany.
Naval Race 17 Britain confidence funfminuten conscription Germany “we want eight, we won’t wait” “A German fleet is a luxury not A necessity.” weapons rivalry dreadnought 29 France
Arms Race and the First World War: Effects The arms race was tied in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM. It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other nations - and it gave the nations the WHEREWITHAL to wage war.
Assassination • Where is Sarajevo? • Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914? • Why was he visiting Sarajevo? • What was the name of the terrorist group planning to assassinate him? • When was this group formed? • How many members did this group have by 1914? • What were the aims of this group? • Which country was the group connected to? • What was the name of the assassin?
Assassination • Where is Sarajevo?Bosnia • Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914?Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Why was he visiting Sarajevo?To encourage positive relations between A-H and the local people • What was the name of the terrorist group planning to assassinate him? Black Hand Gang • When was this group formed?1911 • How many members did this group have by 1914?2,500 • What were the aims of this group? unite all Serbs in to a greater Serbia • Which country was the group connected to?Serbia • What was the name of the assassin? GavrilloPrincip
Details… • Name the Count who wanted to go to war with Serbia • How many points did A-H send Serbia in their ultimatum? • Which point did Serbia not agree too? • Why? • What was the German plan of attack called? • What was it designed to avoid? • What was the treaty with Belgium called? • When was it signed?
Details… • Name the Count who wanted to go to war with Serbia. Count Hotzendorf • How many points did A-H send Serbia in their ultimatum? 10points • Which point did Serbia not agree too?point 6 • Why? Gave A-H control of Serbia’s court system • What was the German plan of attack called?Schlieffen Plan • What was it designed to avoid?A war on two fronts (sides) • What was the treaty with Belgium called?Treaty of London • When was it signed? 1839
Effect of the SP • Britain had no intention of supporting Russia • Would have been difficult for Britain to convince the people to go to war over France • BELGIUM = opportunity • 1839 – Treaty of London = “scrap of paper” by the Kaiser • British people shocked by German aggression towards a small country like Belgium!
Who’s Who? What did they want? ______________________ _____________________ ______________________
Clemenceau Lloyd-George Wilson
Cripple Germany’s economy Prevent future threats from Germany Germany should be punished but not too harshly A harsh treaty might lead to another war Make Germany suffer International cooperation – League of Nations Britain and Germany to trade in the future Self-determination
Clemenceau Cripple Germany’s economy Prevent future threats from Germany Make Germany suffer International cooperation – League of Nations Britain and Germany to trade in the future Germany should be punished but not too harshly A harsh treaty might lead to another war Lloyd-George Wilson Self-determination
Treaty of Versailles Maths Challenge
Question 1 • How many soldiers were the German army allowed under the Terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Write the answer down. • Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George made up the Big Who? Write the answer down. • Multiple these two answers. Now write the answer to question 1 down.