DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION
Physical Factors (Climate, Relief) • Ideal temperate climate for people to live in (eg Los Angeles) • Eg River Nile – has irrigated fertile land to farm which attract people to it • Eg Japan – because it is a very small area so people are squashed into the country – there is nowhere else to go • ·WARM • ·ADEQUATE RAIN FOR CROPS • NOT MOUNTAINOUS– FLAT LAND FOR BUILDING
Social Factors Eg Nigeria - the birth rate is very high due to lack of contraceptives. The death rate is also falling due to improvements in health care. Eg India because people can’t afford to move away Eg China – massive birth rate historically – since 1979 have introduced the “One Child Policy” Eg Sydney – historically this is where the prisoners were taken to and a settlement grew up there ·LOW CRIME RATES WELFARE STATE – eg get a pension / dole
Economic Factors Eg Europe – because there is a high standard of living and so people want to move there Eg East coast of USA – lots of job opportunities – eg New York – this is where the former migrants from Europe headed to NYC Eg Nigeria – has lots of Oil reserves which attracts in-migration. Eg South Africa – the richest African country – so attracts people to work there ·LOW UNEMPLOYMENT AND LOW INTEREST RATES LOTS OF JOBS
Physical Factors (Climate, Relief) • EG Alaska – because very cold, inhospitable climate – including mountainous regions – eg Mount McKinley • Eg Greenland – 3km thick ice sheet! – hardly any land that is not covered by ice to grow crops – very very cold! • Eg Iceland – very cold – lots of glaciers – isolated – volcano threat • Eg Ural Mountains of Russia – mountainous – not great for growing crops • Eg Saudi Arabian desert – very hot – no water to grow crops • Eg Amazon Rainforest – poor quality soils • TOO COLD – TOO HOT – NO FLAT LAND – POOR SOILS – TOO ISOLATED
Social Factors ·Lack of welfare state – I.e. no pensions given by government; no job seekers allowance – family looks after you in old age High rates of unemployment High interest rates on loans Poor quality of life Poor hospital facilities Lack of vaccinations – eg for AIDs pandemic High crime rates – eg armed coups, large criminal rackets
Economic Factors • Not many jobs and opportunities • High taxation • No income support • High rates of inflation – ie where money devalues quickly • No industry to provide growth • No support from a distant government – eg Siberia
Isle of Lewis Accessibility > only 3 ferries every day to the mainland of Scotland. 100’s miles from the centre of Scotland’s population. Very remote. Relief (shape of land) > quite hilly so not good for buildings Drainage > lots of lakes – poor drainage – boggy / marshy – peat bogs Climate > Very very wet – experiences full force of Atlantic gales – warm conditions attract midges! Resources > Peat is only resource! – poor soils Employment > few jobs – only fishing, crofting, making tweed Services > Stornoway main town – few services
Port Talbot Accessibility > M4 motorway goes straight through this area Relief > mostly a coastal plain lying between highlands of South Wales and Severn Estuary Drainage > well drained good for farming Climate > can be wet but temperatures much warmer than Isle of Lewis Resources > Coal , iron ore, limestone all contributed to the local iron and steel industry which has attracted people for jobs in the area Employment > lots of jobs – eg oil refineries (Swansea) Services > Swansea city nearby – offer a wide range – eg large hospitals, schools, cinemas etc
Chloropleth Map for Population of Derbyshire 1991 Above 200,000 – eg Derby (218,800) 100,001 to 200,000 – eg Ambervalley (111,900) 80,000 to 100000 – eg High Peak (85,100) Less than 80,000 – eg Bolsover (70,400) Colour in the regions of Derbyshire as per Q 4 a and 4b, p71 And Figure 2.11
World Population Distribution Describe > Asia has 59% of the world’s population. Europe (CIS) has 16%; the smallest is Oceania with 1%. Explain > (in Asia) The death rates are slowly falling due to an increase in health care and vaccinations. People are living longer. The birth rate is high – there are 5/6 children per family as there is little contraception available and implemented. Why should they have small families when children are seen as a free labour supply on your farm and will look after you in old age. Also seen as a sign of virility (especially in India)
Thomas Malthus:He said that when population levels rose about that of food production - 3 “checks” would occur:1. Wars - eg Somalia 1990s2. Famine3. Diseasethese checks would bring population levels down again in line with food production.Another demographer Boserup - she disagrees with Malthus (19C) - she says that humans will find ways of coping through advances in medicine and technology - eg living on the moon!
Carry Capacity = The maximum number of people that can be supported by the available resources. After this point (C.C.) to 2 theories have been proposed: • Malthus– he said that WAR, FAMINE and DISEASE would result in people dying and the population being “CHECKED” (or brought back to the carrying capacity level). • Boserup– she said that humans will find the technology to cope with the ever increasing number of mouths to feed – example Island of Mauritius • Optimum Population = where there is a healthy balance between the number of people and available resources – I.e. there is enough to go around. If this point is reached a state of OVER-POPULATION is said to occur – (ie too many people in relation to resources)
Natural Increase Natural Increase = Number of Births – Number of Deaths If the Natural Increase (NI) is positive – the population will grow in size – eg India. If the natural increase is negative – the country will shrink in number – eg Sweden, Italy, Germany.
UK Population Pyramid: • 2000 – Birth Rate is stable, death rate is medium – and there are more females than males in old age. • 2025 – Birth Rate decreases and death rate decreases • 2050 – Birth rate has fallen again and the death rate is VERY low. Natural Increase is negative – so the population will decline? The reason why there are fewer children is because they are expensive • And because more women are pursuing careers and therefore do not have time for a family. • The government will therefore need to plan for: • More old peoples homes • Increase retirement age so they can get more tax from you • Increase in taxation to pay for old peoples homes and care • The increase in power of the “grey vote” = the power of the vote of old people
Levels of Population The Three Levels of Population 1 – Under Population This describes the situation where there are more resources in an area than the population needs. In most respects this is a good situation, as populations can stockpile resources or sell / donate resources, but it can mean resources are underused.
Levels of Population The Three Levels of Population 2 – Overpopulation When an area is overpopulated, it means that there are not enough resources to support the population. This may be because there are too many people or not enough resources. This can cause immense difficulties for the people in that area.
Levels of Population The Three Levels of Population 2 – Optimum Population When an area is at optimum population, it has exactly the right amount of resources to support its population. There are no problems with the population gaining access to the resources they need, nor are there problems with resources being underused.
Population Changes • The total population of an area depends upon changes in the natural increase and migration. • The natural increase (or decrease) is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. • The birth rate is the number of live births in a year for every 1000 people in the total population. • The death rate is the number of people in every 1000 who die in a year. • If the birth rate is higher then the total population will increase. If the death rate is higher then the total population will decrease.
Natural Increase – p72 Country Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Increase Nigeria 43 13 +30 = therefore the country is growing quite rapidly Mali 50 20 +30 = therefore the country is growing quite rapidly Germany 10 11 -1 = the population is shrinking Italy 9 9 0 = the population is remaining the same or is said to be stationary
Model 2: The PPM (Population Pyramid Model) The PPM - 'Population Pyramid Model' shows how dynamic (subject to change) population is. The model is structured to show 'snapshots' of a population at four points during its development, which are shown as Stages 1 - 4 (A - D). A country will progress through the stages.
The DTM Stage 1 • Here the Birth Rates (BR) and Death Rates (DR) fluctuate at a high level giving a small population growth. BR is high because: • No birth control or family planning • Infant mortality is high so parents have lots of children to compensate • Many children are needed to work on the land as a free labour supply • Children are seen as a sign of virility (matcho) • Some religious beliefs (Catholic) discourage use of contraception
The DTM Stage 1 • The Death is high because: • Disease and plague are rife (eg cholera, typhoid, AIDs) • Famine and uncertain food supplies – often encouraged by civil war (eg Darfur, Sudan 2004) • Poor hygiene – no fresh running water, no sewage disposal • Little medical science – few doctors and drugs • Eg UK before 1750
Stage 2 Kenya
Stage 2 of DTM • The DR is falling due to: • Improved medical facilities and hospitals are built • Vaccinations become slowly available – eg BCG • Improvements in food production • Improved transport of food, doctors • A decrease in infant mortality • NB - Although still no birth control in this period. • (UK 1750-1880)
DTM Stage 3: • BR now falls rapidly, while DR continues to fall slightly to give a slowly increasing population. (Eg Kerala, India) • The fall in BR is due to: • Introduction of family planning – condoms are available, contraceptive pill, sterilization of men and women, abortion • A lower Infant Mortality(IM) rate leads to less pressure on families to have so many children • Increased industrialization means that machines do peoples jobs – so less people are needed as manual labourers • Increased desire for material possessions – aspirations to have a certain car, holiday, lifestyle – and less emphasis on wanting a family • Emancipation of women – VERY IMPORTANT – enabling them to be educated, follow career paths rather than being solely child-bearers. Also women choose increasingly to have a career over a family • (UK 1880-1950) • - Sometimes population policies are introduced by governments – to encourage people to have fewer children – to reduce the Birth Rate – eg China One Child Policy 1979.
Stage 3 Brazil
DTM Stage 4 • Both BR and DR remain low, fluctuating slightly to give a steady population. - Eg UK today in 2006 • DTM Stage 5 • It is thought that in stage 5 BR falls below DR to give a declining population (eg UK 2100) eg Sweden today. This is sometimes called negative natural increase or population decrease. • Problems with the DTM: • Many countries cannot sufficiently develop to get beyond stage 2 – eg Sudan, Chad, Afghanistan • Although the availability of medical care is available in some countries they still choose to have large families • When Western Europe went through stages 3 and 4 the increase in population went off to the colonies in Africa and Asia – this is not an option for developing countries • Increase in population, economic stagnation and ecological problems make it almost impossible for some LEDCs. Only a few have successfully broken the cycle – eg South Korea
Stage 4 UK
Germany Stage 5
Demographic Transition Model http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html
Population pyramids are useful because they show: • Trends in the birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate and life expectancy - these trends can help a country to plan its future services, e.g. more homes for the elderly if there is an ageing population or fewer schools if there is a declining birth rate. • The effects of people migrating into or out of a region or country. • The proportion of the population who are economically active and the proportion who are dependent upon them (dependency ratio).